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furnishes an answer to itself. If he solely in one particular street of the contends, that the whole collective great city; but he contends, nerer: body of witnesses must be slain in theless, that their death is to be uni. order to accomplish the prophecy, versal. On this foundation, he builds he must likewise contend that the the following exposition. The unisame whole collectire body (without versal death of the witnesses is to any exceptions in either case) must occur at the close of the 1260 years, prophesyin sackcloth during the which are not yet expired; there. full term of 1260 years: but by his fore this universal death is still fuown acknowledgment, they ceased ture. In order to be universally thus to prophesy in England, not to slain, the whole collective body of the mention other countries, at my era witnesses is to be gathered together of the war, and therefore before the into one particular broad street of the expiration of the 1260 years : hence Roman city: and this street is conit is plain, that, whenever those jectured to be England. When they years sball expire, the whole collec- have there lain dead three natural tide body of witnesses will not have years and a half, they are to rise from prophesied in sackcloth during the the symbolical death of total suppresful term: but, if the whole collec- sion, and are to ascend into the mystire body be not spoken of in their tic heaven of triumphant establishsackcloth prophesying, I see no ment. To adopt this opinion, noreason why we are bound to suppose thing more is required of us than to that the whole collective body is admit such particulars as these. Tospoken of in their death. Analogy wards the close of the 1260 years requires the same mode of interpre- all the witnesses from all quarters of talion in both cases : before there- the world are to assemble together fore Anonymous establishes the uni- in England, as the birds and beasts eersality of the death of the wite once flocked by a cerlain divine inResses, I shall expect him to esta. stinct into Noah's ark. None are to blish the universality of their sack- be absent; because, says Anonycloth ministry (without any ercep- mous, the prophecy cannot be action, let him observe) during the complished except in the suppresentire term of the 1260 years. I sion of “ the protestant church ge. had myself argued as follows: The neral.At this period, therefore, death of the witnesses takes place, they are to congregate into Engnot throughout the whole of the great land with one consent from all the city, but only in the broad or princi- numerous British colonies; not only pal strect of it. Therefore it cannot from all the British colonies, but be an unidersal death, but must be a from Sweden, Denmark, Holland, particular one. Hence the wit- and the various protestant regions of nesses may be exempt from persecu- the continent; not only from the tion elsewhere, though they are slain various protestant regions of Euis that one street. On this princi- rope, but from the widely extended ple, namely the non-universality of domains of the united American the death of the witnesses, which seems states. Nothing is to prevent the to me necessarily to result both from universality of this stupendous pilthe present argument and from the grimage ; because the prophecy Inalogy afforded by the preceding cannot be accomplished except by one, I framed my interpretation. the death of the whole collective body Now it is a somewhat singular thing, of witnesses, of “ the protestant that Anonymous fully allows my church general," says Anonymous; premises, and yet denies the obvious and this death is to occur in only conclusion to be drawn from then. one street of the great city; and Like me, he asserts that the whole that one street is England. As we atlair of the death and resurrection live in an age of wonders, I shall of the wildesses is to take place not presumo to discuss the possibility of these marvellous events; but prove the universality against t Anonymous must allow me "to suse foregoing arguments, he will inde pend my belief, until I become a overturn my exposition, but he w convert to the stubbornness of abso- not thereby establish his own. lute facts. But these are not the (2.) His second objection I ha only difficulties which we are require answered again and again tesque ed to encounter. If the papal Ro- nauseam. At present, therefore, man empire be the great city, and if shall only remark, that, even if m England (agreeably to the prophetic answer be deemed insufficient, m injunction) be come out of that city; interpretation may still remain firo it is passing hard to conceive, how it We are not bound to translate cio can still be, not only a street of the searowo either when they shall ha papal empire, but the broad street, so finished or when ihey shall be about called in contradiction to sinaller finish. As Dr. More remarks, it ma streets or alleys. In a map of the as well be rendered while they ar western Roman empire, England performing, or during the time tha would, to be sure, be geographically they are discharging. Such a trans included within its limits; but, when 'lation will at once remove any chro we consider that throughout the nological difficulty, if indeed one d Apocalypse the great city is obvi- really exist. ously spoken of in reference to a (3.) To his third wholly un corrupt religion, and that the faith- founded objection, Anonymous wil ful are exhorted to come out from find a reply from Dr. Robertson, i her, it is not easy to believe that a he will turn to my Dissertation itkingdom, which in the judgment of self, vol. ii. p. 89–92. 4th edit. Anonymous himself, has come out 3. There is one more point in the of her, is still the principal street of pamphlet of Anonymous, which it her empire. Anonymous bas thrown may be expedient to notice : be eaaway much criticism on the word deavours to prove, contrary to the πλατεια. . I never asserted, nor general opinion of expositors, that ibought of asserting, that it denoted the beast and false prophet are slain a furum, in the same manner that at the battle of Armageddon precisely ayopa does; that is to say, in a , at the end of the 1260 years, and translation verbum de verbo. I only consequently that that period does said, that it denotes a broad or prin- pot terminale at the commencement cipal street; and, since the definite of the seventh vial, bui at its conphraseology of the prophet (THE clusion. To this idea the following Fratelas) requires us to conclude is a sufficient answer. The restothat there was only one such street ration of the Jews, as all commentain his figurative city, I argued, that tors allow, commences certainly not most probably the greut square or before the end of the 1260 years. forum was intended: but, when I Some think it commences precisely was simply performing the function at the end; and some, a short period of a translator, I of course rendered after, the end: but, with good reathe word, not the forum, but the son, none place it before the end, broad street. If Anonymous chooses Now the prophets unanimously to suppose any other large street place the destruction of Antichrist rather than the forum, my interpre- in Palestine, where the returning tation will be just the same; pro- Jews have already arrived : therevided he acknowledges, that there is fore Antichrist must perish at the only one such street in the city. I least so long after the end of the shall finish this head with briefly 1200 years as would be required for observing, that the jut of the whole the Jews to be collected into Palesargument between us is the universa- tine ; and consequently he does not lity or particularity of the death of perish precisely at their eod. the witnesses. If Anonymous can

Having now, I believe, answered

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sary opponent of every description ceeding anniversary does but the that was not absolutely beneath more confirm. Those, indeed, who criticism, I must say a few parting are present, glow with so much are' words to yourself, Mr. Editur. In dour, are so correct in describing your number for October last, page the principles upon which the obc. 620, you represent me as being at ject of their conviviality acted, and issue with Bishop Horsley on the so earnestly express their desires to dable sense of prophecy. You are imitale his example, - that, were mistaken : I perfectiy accord with they always conducted with decohin I asserted, indeed, and, do rum, and with less subserviency to still assert (what his Lordship never the animal appetites, it might andenied), that the several links of a swer a good purpose, if such occachrmological prophecy, such (forsions were more generally comnieinstance) as ihose of Daniel and morated. St. John, are incapable of a double The Christian, however, may decompletion : but, with respect to rive a suggestion from hence, which, zachronological prophecies, I ex. if duly adopted, cannot but be atpressly maintain their frequent dou- tended both to himself and family ble sense. My opinion is fully with impressions far more profitable. stated in the preface to my Disser. Let him, when an event occurs, in tation on the 1260 Years, and in which his family will be interested, the second edition of my work on add to the periods of farnily worship the Restoration of the Jews, vol. i. something commemorative of that p. 109–113.

event, and set apart the day as a' season of thanksgiving or humiliation, as the circumstance shall happen to be joyous or afflictive. Such

an addition will direct the attention For the Christian Observer.

to an over-ruling Providence: not "Celestes implorat aquas doctå prece

to say, that it will serve, on the


one hand, to alleviate sorrow, and, dzertit morbos, metueuda pericula pellit,

on the other, to temper the ebullio' kepetrat ei pacem, et locupletem frugibu s

tions of joy.

Engagements, in Horace,

which God caninot, with consista

ency, be appealed to, it is unbeAxidst the multiplicity of events, coming a Christian to sanction by which diversify human life, no his presence, or to connive at it by thing, perhaps, so much conduces bis silence; a emark which applies render impressions respecting equally to the most trivial and the

permanent, as to give to them, most momentous. The very hesias they occur, an air of dignity and tation, indeed, to invoke a divine importance

. Upon an opinion of blessing, seems to indicate that they this kind are, undoubtedly, founded are repugnant to the spirit of Christhe festivals and convivial associa- tianity. Lions, which, in honour of some It must be acknowledged, neverexemplary act of patriotism, some theless, that Christianity was never signal achievement of heroism, or intended to suppress those feelings yote amiable instance of benevo- and expressions of joy which cercoce, men are not unfrequently tain occurrences are apt to occasion. vited to countenance. On these Those who affect to discover in it occasions all being unanimous, by arguments favouring such an idea, pieriously knowing what topics of greatly misunderstand its spirit. In Enversation will chiefly prevail, fact, as human affections, if left to kupressions are fixed, which no the guidance of nature, degenerate hape of years can erase, and sentia into the extremes of folly and ableats imparted, which every suc surdity, so Christianity was proCH:IT, OBSEsv. No. 110,





mulged the more effectually to re- gion, from whence it emanat strain and regulate them. Instances and of the joys of which it may be recollected, where, owing some grateful foretastes. to a deficiency of Christian princi- poet it may be exclaimed: ples, occasions of joy have led men “ Happy the man, who sees a Gode to transports which have far ex

ployed ceeded all the boundaries of reason In all the good and ill, that chequer life! and propriety; and circumstances Resolving all events, with their effects of affliction have rendered them in. And manifold results, into the will sensible to all the active duties of And arbitration wise of the Supreme !" life, so as ultimately to have occa. But men who act on no religio sioned premature dissolution. principles, cannot experience the With the deficiency alluded to, it is happy sensations. It is impossibl a certain truth that prosperity and And though those objects, which a adversity are equally dangerous; denominated earthly pleasures, a happy and unhappy events equally eagerly pursued, because they dis calculated to disorder the affections. sipate consideration, draw the a On the contrary, where Christianity tention from the evils of life, an has its proper and predominating serve, in some measure, to begui influence, a man knows how to act tedious moments; yet they wi a becoming part under every fate. not bear to be reflected on. Hor He seeks out and seizes upon the far, therefore, a gratification, whic events*, with which this mortal will not bear a serious retrospect, i state of existence abounds, and proper and worthy the pursuit of a adapts them to some purpose of immortal spirit, shall be left to th edification. Those, even, which in decision of conscience. Men by appearance afford the least prospect, these pleasures can never be se and from which it seems dificult to riously said to improve events, bul derive any thing worthy of notice, to kill time. Pleas, it is true, of rehe so adjusts and improves as to give creation, improvement, and inno impressions, that greatly tend to cence, are usually offered; which, " build up in their most holy call- however, are more specious than ing” both himself and all, over solid, and more the dictates of a whom he has authority. Such a carnal propensity, than warranted man, strictly speaking, acts under by any useful purpose. Were the the conviction, that he is in the pleasures in question entirely inpresence of an Almighty Being, to nocent, and their object, in reality, whose eye nothing is more agree- the recreation of the body, or the able than a due improvement of improvement of the mind, they the vicissitudes which his Provi- would go in unison with religion. dence has ordained: and hence, after whereas, it is notorious that relithe example of an apostle, who gion is considered as intrusive on knew when to rejoice, and when to them, and as invading a sphere albe sorrowful,—who, even when in together incompatible with its dibonds, enjoyed a mind serene and vine original. An argument this, composed, - he inculcates on his which evidently supposes, that man family, that "all things work toge- may be lawfully occupied with enther for good to them that love gagements in which religion has God." That equanimity and peace

no concern. But if the role of the should be the recompence of this apostle, “ Whatsoever ye "do, do judicious improvement of events, is all to the glory of God," be alnot to be wondered at. The soul lowed to possess any authority, the is hereby directed to a frequent argument loses all its weight. Let contemplation of that happy re- this rule be strictly applied to the

Tempora quæram, Home

• Cowper's Task.

pleasures, which so many men are break down, and a time to build up'; porsaing, and which, as they pre- a time to weep, and a time to laugh ; tend

, are often suggested by the a time to mourn, and a time to passing incidents of life; and it dance.” Will it still be contested, will in most cases be found, that that in all these cases religion is their conduct cannot be defended. unseasonable, and cannot properly

But so far from dispensing with be entertained? The argument evireligion for some short period only dently hinges on the fallacy, that by this disunion, and afterwards at religion has less to do with princia proper season prosecuting it with ples than with actions. But what greater alacrity, for this is implied, is really the object of religion? Is the mind becomes disposed to reject it not to make us “ wise unto salvait altogether.

tion"-to“ teach us, that, denying " To every thing there is a sea- ungodliness and worldly lusts, we son," says Solomon, "and a time should live soberly, righteously, and to every porpose under the heaven.” godly in this present world ?" And From hence it is taken for granted, does not the attainment of this obbecause Solomon is inculcating an ject imply, that principles, consoeconomy of time, and shewing, tbat nant to the will of God, are imby a proper disposition and admi- planted in the heart, which actuate aistration of it ibere is enough for and pervade a man's whole con. every laudable purpose; that, there- duct? Hence, truly, it happens, fore, there is one season, when re- when a Christian plants or builds, ligion may be entertained, and an: mourns or rejoices, or whatever he other

, when it would be improper. does, that it is “only in the Lord," Bat can any interpretation be more Upon this principle is founded our lax and distorted?' To confound or constitution both in church and associate dissimllar pursuits in our state. At the coronation of our worlally affairs, would promote the monarchs, on the anniversaries of saccess of none — would, indeed, their birth-days, on days of rejoic. tend 10 derange and render abortive ing for victory over enemies, on all: a truth this well known to the the session of the high court of parHost superficial understanding. But, liament, on promotion to offices of as the most well known and unde- state, &c., the attention is directed, niable truibs would generally fail, in the first place, by some religious through the disinclination of the ceremony, to the King of kings and mind to what is good, to produce Lord of lords. We are hereby led their intended effects, a simple re- to acknowledge that Divine Provi. petition of them, accompanied by a dence, which superintends and reIew appropriate examples, has al- gulates all sublunary affairs; and mys been deemed sufficient to even by such acknowledgment ta. rescue tbem from oblivion, and, in citly pledge ourselves to maintain men not completely abandoned, to throughout our conduct the purity tetive a sense of duty. Aware of and consistency of the Christian tbe sad effects to families from a character. By endeavouring, there mal-administration of their affairs, fore, to sever conduct from princi Solomon undertakes the office of an ples; or, in other words, by affirmeconomist, and in this character is ing that a temporary absence of resupposed to enforce the contested ligion, while celebrating any joyful words. "To every thing,” says he, event, or engaged in any worldly "there is a season, and a time to affair, tends to a more zealous prac. every purpose under the heaven : a tice of it in retirement, or during time to be born, and a time to die; the Sabbath-its proper season; we a time to plant, and a time to pluck espouse a tenet unknown to revela2 tbat which is planted; a time to tion, and equally unknown to our Lill, and a time to heal; a time to venerable constitution. This tenet

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