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REFERENCES

for factories and warehouses, medical diagnosis systens, systems that will automate a large amount of office work, legal aids, teaching aids, interactive software production systems, and so on. (Firschein et al. (1973), make some predictions about when these and other latelligent systems may cone. ]

The short range result of this increased pragmatism nay tend to fractionate the field. In the long run, though, if there really are many more core ideas to be discovered, these technological efforts will stinulate their discovery, provided that a sufficient level of basic investigation continues.

In closing, I have one final prodiction. As AI successes grow, so will the criticisms of AI, especially from those who are certain that intelligence cannot be mechanized. These critics, having been forced out of various mystical trenches in the past, will be especially vigorous in their defense of what little ground remains to them. The ensuing debates will have the crucially important side effect of getting us all to consider how we want to use and control our new intellectual powers. I hope that society assesses these powers accurately and is not lulled by certain otherwise well-meaning humanists into believing that Artificial Intelligence is not real.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful for the comments and criticisms of the following people: Woodrow Bledsoe, Stephen Coles, Edward Feigenbaum, Jerome Feldman, Richard Fikes, Cordell Green, Peter Hart, Michael Kassler, John McCarthy, Allen Newell, Charles Rosen, Earl Sacerdoti, Jay Tenenbaum, Richard Waldinger, and Donald Walker.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Each entry has a code symbol or symbols associated with one or more of the twelve subheadings of Al that we have discussed in the paper. These symbols are: DED = Common-Sense Reasoning, Deduction, and Problem Solving; REP = Modeling and Representation of Knowledge; SEARCH - Heuristic Search; SYS = AI Systems and Languages; GAME = Game Playing; AIDS = Math, Science, and Engineering Aids; TP = Automatic Theorem Proving; PROG = Automatic Programming; ROB = Robots; VIS = Machine Vision; LANG = Natural Language Systens; PSYC = Information Processing Psychology. A prefix "-G" after a symbol means that the reference contains a general discussion or survey.

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