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excluded from the domain of “nonquantifiable aspects" of management." Proper to management science is the creation of methods general enough to apply to the ill-structured problems of management-taking them on their own terms and dealing with them in all their vagueness—and not demanding more in the way of data than the situations provide. To be sure, these methods will also be weak but not necessarily weaker than is inherent in the ill-structuring of the task.
That management science should deal with the full range of management problems is by no means a new conclusion. In this respect these two hypotheses only reinforce some existing strands of research and application. They do, however, put special emphasis on the extent to which the hard mathematical core of management science should be involved in ill-structured problems. They say such involvement is possible.
1. G. P. E. Clarkson, Portfolio Selection: a Simulation of Trust Investment,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 1962. 2. R. M. Cyert and J. G. March, A Behavioral Theory of the Firm, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 1963. 3. J. Ellul, The Technological Society, Knopf, New York, 1964. 4. T. G. Evans, "A Heuristic Program to Solve Geometric Analogy Problems,"
Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 25, 1961, pp. 327-338. 5. E. A. Feigenbaum and J. Feldman (eds.), Computers and Thought, McGraw
Hill, New York, 1963. (Reprints many of the basic papers.) 6. R. W. Floyd, “Assigning Meanings to Programs,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc., Sym
posium on Applied Mathematics, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 19–32. 7. J. Harris, “Judgmental versus Mathematical Prediction: an Investigation by
Analogy of the Clinical versus Statistical Controversy,” Behav. Sci., 8, No. 4,
324-335 (Oct, 1963). 8. E. S. Johnson, “An Information-Processing Model of One Kind of Problem
Solving,” Psychol. Monog., Whole No. 581, 1964. 9. T. Kilburn, R. L. Grimsdale, and F. H. Summer, "Experiments in Machine
Learning and Thinking,” Proc. International Conserence on Information Proc
essing, UNESCO, Paris, 1959. 10. B. Kleinmuntz (ed.), Formal Representation of Human Judgment, Wiley, New
York, 1968. 11. A. A. Kuchn and M. J. Hamburger, "A Heuristic Program for Locating Ware
houses,” Mgmt. Sci., 9, No. 4, 643-666 (July 1963).
One need only note the extensive calls to arms issued to the industrial operations researcher to consider the total decision context, and not merely that which he can quantify and put into his model, to realize the firm grip of this image.
12. P. E. Meehl, Clinical vs. Statistical Prediction, University of Minnesota Press,
Minneapolis, Minn., 1954. 13. A. Newell and G. Ernst, "The Search for Generality,” in Proc. IFIP Congress 65
(E. W. Kalenich, ed.), Spartan Books, New York, 1965, pp. 17-24. 14. A. Newell and H. A. Simon, "Programs as Theories of Higher Mental Processes,”
in Computers in Biomedical Research (R. W. Stacey and B. Waxman, eds.),
Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1965, pp. 141-172. 15. A. Newell, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, “Empirical Explorations of the Logic
Theory Machine: a Case Study in Heuristic,” Proc. Western Joint Computer
Conference, Feb. 1957, pp. 218-230. Reprinted in Ref. (5). 16. A. Newell, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, "Elements of a Theory of Human
Problem Solving,” Psychol. Rev., 65, No. 3, 151-166 (May 1958). 17. W. R. Reitman, "Heuristic Decision Procedures, Open Constraints, and the
Structure of Ill-Defined Problems,” in Human Judgments and Optimability
(M. W. Shelly and G. L. Bryan, eds.), Wiley, New York, 1964, pp. 282-315. 18. W. R. Reitman, Cognition and Thought, Wiley, New York, 1965. 19. A. L. Samuel, "Some Studies in Machine Learning, Using the Game of Checkers,"
IBM J. Res. and Devel. 3, 221-229 (July 1959). Reprinted in Ref. (5). 20. O. Selfridge, "Pattern Recognition and Modern Computers,” and G. P. Dinneen,
"Programming Pattern Recognition,” Proc. Western Joint Computer Conference,
1955, pp. 91-93, 94-100. 21. H. A. Simon and A. Newell, "Heuristic Problem Solving: the Next Advance in
Operations Research," Opns. Res., 6, No. 1, 1-10 (Jan.--Feb, 1958). 22. H. A. Simon and K. Kotovsky, "Human Acquisition of Concepts for Sequential
Patterns," Psychol. Rev., 70, 534-546 (1963). 23. A. W. Tucker, “Combinatorial Algebra of Matrix Games and Linear Programs," in Applied Combinatorial Mathematics (E. F. Beckenbach, ed.), Wiley, New
, York, 1964, pp. 320-347. 24. L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy Sets,” Inform, and Control, 8, 338-353 (1965).
Figure 10.1, second line under the figure should read
"is not under the control of the inputting process.
Third paragraph in the formula should read
2 "Procedure: compute x = -b/2a + 1/2a
Third paragraph, fifth line should read
Paragraph 4.1., line 5
Line 3 from the bottom
change "varible" to wariable"
Bottom line replace (;) with (:)
Nils J. Nilsson. “Artificial Intelligence,” pp 778-801, in Volume 4, Information Processing 74, Proceedings of IFIP Congress 74, organized by the International Federation for Information Processing, Stockholm, Sweden, August 5-10, 1974, Jack L. Rosenfeld, editor, copyrighted 1974. Reprinted by permission of North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.