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The Ilkhāns in Persia
The Mongols in Central Asia
The Bahri Mamlüks
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able activity administration al-Din al-Malik already appeared army Asia attempt authority battle became become began Black brother brought Caliph campaign century China Chinese Christian civilization continued course court Crimea cultural death died dynasty early East eastern effect Egypt Egyptian empire established Europe existence fighting followed forces further Golden Horde groups hand held Hindu Ilkhāns important independence India influence interests internal Islám Islámic Jingiz Khān lands latter less lived Mamlük Mesopotamia military Mongol Moscow Muhammad Muslim Nestorian northern organized Ottoman period Persia political population position possession princes probably Qara realm region reign relations religious remained resistance result rule ruler Russian Sarai Shāh soon subjects success Sultān Syria Tabriz Tatar territory throne Timür took trade Transoxiana tribes troops Turkish Turks turned victory Volga Western whole