Darwinism, War and History: The Debate Over the Biology of War from the 'Origin of Species' to the First World War
This book challenges the received view that Darwinism generated essentially aggressive and warlike social values and pugnacious images of humankind. Paul Crook reconstructs the influential discourse of "peace biology," whose liberal vision was of a basically free humanity, not fettered by iron laws of biological necessity or governed by violent genes. By exploring a gamut of Darwinian readings of history and war, mainly in the English-speaking world prior to 1919, this study throws important new light on militarism, peace movements, the origins of World War I and British social thought.
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The Darwinian legacy
The age of Spencer and Huxley
Crisis in the west the prewar generation and the new biology
The natural decline of warfare antiwar evolutionism prior to 1914
The First World War man the fighting animal
The survival of peace biology
Naturalistic fallacies and noble ends
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adaptation aggression American Angell animal argued army became become behaviour biological Britain British caused century civilisation civilization claim competition concept critical crowd culture Darwinian Darwinist debate degeneration determinism differences discourse doctrine early economic effects environment ethics eugenics evolution evolutionary example fact factors fighting force future genetic German higher human Huxley ideal ideas imperial included individual industrial influence inheritance instincts intellectual interests James John later less liberal living London lower man's means militarist military Mitchell moral nations natural selection naturalistic organic Origin peace peace biology philosophy physical political population primitive principle progress Psychology quoted race racial reason result Review scientific seemed sense Social Darwinism socialist society sociology species Spencer struggle struggle for existence Studies suggested theory thought tradition types United University values violence warfare wars whole York
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