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the Epistle to the Romans, and the Epistle to for the sake of imitating Saint Paul's style, the Galatians, that I cannot deny but that it he should have thought it necessary to interwould be easy for an impostor, who was fabri- sperse his composition with names and circating a letter in the name of Saint Paul, to cumstances, he would have placed them out collect these articles into one view. This, of the reach of comparison with the history. therefore, is a conformity which we do not And I am confirmed in this opinion by the adduce. But when I read in the Acts of the inspection of two attempts to counterfeit Saint Apostles, that when “ Paul came to Derbe Pauls epistles, which have come down to us ; and Lystra, behold a certain disciple was and the only attempts, of which we have any there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain knowledge, that are at all deserving of regard. woman which was a Jeuess ;” and when, in One of these is an epistle to the Laodiceans, an epistle addressed to Timothy, I find him extant in Latin, and preserved by Fabricius reminded of his “having known the Holy in his collection of apocryphal scriptures. Scriptures from a child,which implies that the other purports to be an epistle of Saint he must, on one side or both, have been Paul to the Corinthians, in answer to an brought up by Jewish rents ; I conceive epistle from the Corinthians to him. This that I remark a coincidence which shows, by was translated by Scroderus from a copy in its very obliquity, that scheme was not em- the Armenian language which had been sent to ployed in its formation. In like manner, if W. Whiston, and was afterwards, from a more a coincidence depend upon a comparison of perfect copy procured at Aleppo, published dates, or rather of circumstances from which by his sons as an appendix to their edition of the dates are gathered ; the more intricate that Moses Chorenensis. No Greek copy exists of comparison shall be ; the more numerous the either; they are not only not supported by intermediate steps through which the conclu- ancient testimony, but they are negatived and sion is deduced ; in a word, the more circuitous excluded ; as they have never found admission the investigation is, the better, because the into any catalogue of apostolical writings, agreement which finally results is thereby acknowledged by, or known to the early ages farther removed from the suspicion of contri- of Christianity. In the first of these I found, vance, affectation, or design. And it should as I expected, a total evitation of circumstances. be remembered, concerning these coincidences, It is simply a collection of sentences from the that it is one thing to be minute, and another canonical epistles, strung together with very to be precarious; one thing to be unob- little skill. The second, which is a more served, and another to be obscure ; one thing versute and specious forgery, is introduced to be circuitous or oblique, and another to be with a list of names of persons who wrote to forced, dubious, or fanciful. And this dis- Saint Paul from Corinth; and is preceded by tinction ought always to be retained in our an account sufficiently particular of the manthoughts.

ner in which the epistle was sent from Corinth The very particularity of Saint Paul's to Saint Paul, and the answer returned. But epistles ; the perpetual recurrence of names of they are names which no one ever heard of : persons and places ; the frequent allusions to and the account it is impossible to combine with the incidents of his private life, and the any thing found in the Acts, or in the other circumstances of his condition and history ; epistles. It is not necessary for me to point and the connection and parallelism of these out the internal marks of spuriousness and with the same circumstances in the Acts of imposture which these compositions betray; the Apostles, so as to enable us, for the most but it was necessary to observe, that they do part, to confront them one with another; as not afford those coincidences which we propose well as the relation which subsists between as proofs of authenticity in the epistles which the circumstances, as mentioned or referred to we defend. in the different epistles,-afford no inconsider- Having explained the general scheme and able proof of the genuineness of the writings, formation of the argument, I may be permitand the reality of the transactions. For as ted to subjoin a brief account of the manner no advertency is sufficient to guard against of conducting it. slips and contradictions, when circumstances I have disposed the several instances of are multiplied, and when they are liable to be agreement under separate numbers ; as well detected by contemporary accounts equally to mark more sensibly the divisions of the circumstantial, an impostor, I should expect, subject, as for another purpose, pamely, that would either have avoided particulars entirely, the reader may thereby be reminded that the contenting himself with doctrinal discussions, instances are independent of one another. I moral precepts, and general reflections ;' or if, have advanced nothing which I did not think

1 This, however, must not be misunderstood. A person writing an occasion of alluding to the circumstances of his life at all; he to his friends, and upon a subject in which the transactions of his might, or he might not ; the chance on either side is nearly equal. own life were concerned, would probably be led in the course of This is the situation of the catholic epistle. Althoughi, therefore, his letter, especially if it was a long one, to refer to passages found the presence of these allusions and agreements be a valuable in his history. A person addressing an epistle to the public at accession to the arguments by which authenticity of a large, or under the form of an epistle delivering a discourse upon is maintained, yet the want of thein certainly forms no positive soune speculative argument, would not, it is probable, weet with objection.



probable; but the degree of probability by Benson, and Dr Lardner, have each given a which different instances are supported, is continued history of Saint Paul's life, made undoubtedly very different. If the reader, up from the Acts of the Apostles and the therefore, meets with a number which contains epistles joined together : but this, it is manian instance that appears to him unsatisfactory, fest, is a different undertaking from the or founded in mistake, he will dismiss that present, and directed to a different purpose. number from the argument, but without pre- If what is here offered shall add one thread judice to any other. He will have occasion to that complication of probabilities by which also to observe, that the coincidences discover the Christian history is attested, the reader's able in some epistles are much fewer and attention will be repaid by the supreme weaker, than what are supplied by others. importance of the subject, and my design But he will add to his observation this impor- will be fully answered. tant circumstance, that whatever ascertains the original of one epistle, in some measure establishes the authority of the rest. For, whether these epistles be genuine or spurious,

CHAPTER II. every thing about them indicates that they come from the same hand. The diction, which it is extremely difficult to imitate, preserves its resemblance and peculiarity throughout

No. I. all the epistles. Numerous expressions and singularities of style, found in no other part The first passage I shall produce from this of the New Testament, are repeated in diffe- epistle, and upon which a good deal of obserrent epistles ; and occur in their respective vation will be founded, is the following: places, without the smallest appearance of “ But now I go unto Jerusalem, to minister force or art. An involved argumentation, fre- unto the saints; for it hath pleased them of quent obscurities, especially in the order and Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contransition of thought, piety, vehemence, affec- tribution for the poor saints which are at Jerution, bursts of rapture, and of unparalleled salem.” Rom. xv. 25, 26. sublimity, are properties, all, or most of them, In this quotation three distinct circumstandiscernible in every letter of the collection. ces are stated,-a contribution in Macedonia But although these epistles bear strong marks for the relief of the Christians of Jerusalem, a of proceeding from the same hand, I think it contribution in Achaia for the same purpose, is still more certain, that they were originally and an intended journey of Saint Paul to separate publications. They form no con- Jerusalem. These circumstances are stated as tinued story, they compose no regular corres- taking place at the same time, and that to be pondence; they comprise not the transactions the time when the epistle was written. Now of any particular period ; they carry on no let us inquire whether we can find these circonnection of argument; they depend not cumstances elsewhere ; and whether, if we do upon one another; except in one or two find them, they meet together in respect to instances, they refer not to one another. I date. Turn to the Acts of the Apostles, chap. will farther undertake to say, that no study xx. ver. 2, 3, and you read the following or care has been employed to produce or pre- account: “When he had gone over those serve an appearance of consistency amongst parts, (namely, Macedonia,) and had given them. All which observations show that they them much exhortation, he came into Greece, were not intended by the person, whoever he and there abode three months; and when the was, that wrote them, to come forth or be Jews laid wait for him, as he was about to sail read together : that they appeared at first into Syria, he proposed to return through separately, and have been collected since. Macedonia.” From this passage, compared

The proper purpose of the following work with the account of Saint Paul's travels given is to bring together, from the Acts of the before, and from the sequel of the chapter, it Apostles, and from the different epistles, such appears that upon Saint Paul's second visit to passages as furnish examples of undesigned the peninsula of Greece, his intention was, coincidence; but I have so far enlarged upon when he should leave the country, to proceed this plan, as to take into it some circumstan- from Achaia directly by sea to Syria ; but ces found in the epistles, which contributed that, to avoid the Jews, who were lying in strength to the conclusion, though not strictly wait to intercept him in his route, he so far objects of coin parison.

changed his purpose as to go back through It aj peared also a part of the same plan, to Macedonia, embark at Philippi, and pursue examine the difficulties which presented them- his voyage from thence towards Jerusalem. selves in the course of our inquiry.

Here, therefore, is a journey to Jerusalem ; but I do not know that the subject has been not a syllable of any contribution. And as proposed or considered in this view before. Saint Paul had taken several journeys to Ludovicus, Capellus, Bishop Pearson, Dr Jerusalem before, and one also immediately

after his first visit into the peninsula of to what he had done ana said amongst them Greece (Acts, xviii. 21,) it cannot from hence whilst he was there. The expression, therebe collected in which of these visits the epistle fore,“ when I come,” must relate to a second was written, or, with certainty, that it was visit; against which visit the contribution written in either. The silence of the historian, spoken of was desired to be in readiness. who professes to have been with Saint Paul at But though the contribution in Achaia be the time (xx. 6,) concerning any contribution, expressly mentioned, nothing is here said might lead us to look out for some different concerning any contribution in Macedonia. journey, or might induce us perhaps to ques. Turn, therefore, in the third place, to the tion the consistency of the two records, did Second Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. viii. not a very accidental reference, in another ver. 1-4, and you will discover the particular part of the same history, afford us sufficient which remains to be sought for. “ Moreover, ground to believe that this silence was omis- brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of God sion. When Saint Paul made his reply before bestowed on the churches of Macedonia ; how Felix, to the accusations of Tertullus, he that, in a great trial of affliction, the abunalleged, as was natural, that neither the errand dance of their joy and their deep poverty which brought him to Jerusalem, nor his abounded unto the riches of their liberality; conduct whilst he remained there, merited for to their power, I bear record, yea and the calumnies with which the Jews had beyond their power, they were willing of aspersed him. “Now, after many years, (that themselves; praying is, with much entreaty, is, of absence) I came to bring alms to my that we would receive the gift, and take upon nation and offerings ; whereupon certain Jews us the fellowship of the ministering to the from Asia found me purified in the temple, saints.” To which add, chap. ix. ver. 2: “I neither with multitude nor with tumult, who know the forwardness of your mind, for which ought to have been here before thee, and I boast of you to them of Macedonia, that object, if they had auglit against me,” (Acts, Achaia was ready a year ago.” In this epistle xxiv. 17–19). This mention of alms and we find Saint Paul advanced as far as Maceofferings certainly brings the narrative in the donia, upon that second visit to Corinth which Acts nearer to an accordancy with the epistle; he promised in his former epistle; we find yet no one, I am persuaded, will suspect that also in the passages now quoted from it, that this clause was put into Saint Paul's defence, a contribution was going on in Macedonia at either to supply the omission in the preceding the same time with, or soon however followvarrative, or with any view to such accor- ing, the contribution which was made in darev.

Achaia ; but for whom the contribution was After all, nothing is yet said or hinted con- made does not appear in this epistle at all : cerning the place of the contribution ; pothing that information must be supplied from the concerning Macedonia and Achaia. Turn first epistle. therefore to the First Epistle to the Corin- Here therefore, at length, but fetched from thians, chap. xvi. ver. 1-4, and you have three different writings, we have obtained the Saint Paul delivering the following directions: several circumstances we inquired after, and

Concerning the collection for the saints, as which the Epistle to the Romans brings I have given orders to the churches of Galatia, together, namely, a contribution in Achaia even so do ye ; upon the first day of the week for the Christians at Jerusalem ; a contribulet every one of you lay by him in store as tion in Macedonia for the same; and an God hath prospered him, that there be no approaching journey of Saint Paul to Jeruzatherings when I come. And when I come, salem, . We have these circumstances - each whomsoever you shall approve by your letters, by some hint in the passage in which it is them will I send to bring your liberality unto mentioned, or by the date of the writing in Jerusalem ; and if it be meet that I go also, which the passage occurs-fixed to a particular chey shall go with me.” In this passage we time ; and we have that time turning ont, find a contribution carrying on at Corinth, upon examination, to be in all the same ; the capital of Achaia, for the Christians of namely, towards the close of Saint Paul's Jerusalem; we find also a hint given of the second visit to the peninsula of Greece. This possibility of Saint Paul guing up to Jerusalem is an instance of conformity beyond the poshimself, after he had paid his visit into sibility, I will venture to say, of random Achaia : but this is spoken of rather as a writing to produce. I also assert, that it is in possibility than as any settled intention ; for the highest degree improbable that it shoulii his first thought was, “ Whomsoever you shall have been the effect of contrivance and design. approve by your letters, them will I send to The imputation of design amounts to this ; bring your liberality to Jerusalem ;” and in that the forger of the Epistle to the Romans the sixth verse he adds, “ That ye may bring inserted in it the passage upon which our me on my journey whithersoever I go.” This observations are founded, for the purpose of epistle purports to be written after Saint Paul giving colour to his forgery by the appearance had been at Corinth ; for it refers throughout 1 of conformity with other writings which were


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then extans. I reply, in the first place, if he did this to countenance his forgery, he did it

No. II. for the purpose of an argument which would not strike one reader in ten thousand. Coin- By means of the quotation which formed cidences so circuitous as this answer not the the subject of the preceding number, we colends of forgery; are seldom, I believe, at- lect, that the Epistle to the Romans was tempted by it. In the second place, I observe, written at the conclusion of Saint Paul's that he must have had the Acts of the second visit to the peninsula of Greece ; but Apostles, and the two epistles to the Corin- this we collect, not from the epistle itself, nor thians, before him at the time. In the Acts from any thing declared concerning the time of the Apostles, (I mean that part of the Acts and place in any part of the epistle, but from which relates to this period,) he would have a comparison of circumstances referred to in found the journey to Jerusalem ; but nothing the epistle, with the order of events recorded

; about the contribution. In the First Epistle in the Acts, and with reference to the same cirto the Corinthians he would have found a cumstances, though for quite different purposes, contribution going on in Achaia for the Chris- in the two epistles to the Corinthians. Now, tians of Jerusalem, and a distant hint of the would the author of a forgery, who sought to possibility of the journey ; but nothing con- gain credit to a spurious letter by congruities, cerning a contribution in Macedonia. In depending upon the time and place in which the Second Epistle to the Corinthians he the letter was supposed to be written, have would have found a contribution in Mace- left that time and place to be made out in a donia accompanying that in Achaia ; but no manner so obscure and indirect as this is? If intimation for whom either was intended, therefore coincidences of circumstances can be and not a word about the journey. It was pointed out in this epistle, depending upon its only by a close and attentive collation of the date, or the place where it was written, whilst three writings, that he could have picked out that date and place are only ascertained by the circumstances which he has united in his other circumstances, such coincidences may epistle ; and by a still more nice examination, fairly be stated as undesigned. Under this that he could have determined them to belong head I adduce, to the same period. In the third place, I Chap. xvi. 21-23. “Timotheus, my workremark, what diminishes very much the sus- fellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, picion of fraud, how aptly and connectedly my kinsmen, salute you. İ, Tertius, who the mention of the circumstances in question, wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord. namely, the journey to Jerusalem, and of the Gaius, mine host, and of the whole church, occasion of that journey, arises from the con- saluteth you ; and Quartus, a brother.” With text, “ Whensoever I take my journey into this passage I compare Acts, xx. 4,-“ And Spain, I will come to you; for I trust to see there accompanied him into Asia, Sopater of you in my journey, and to be brought on my Berea ; and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus way thitherward by you, if first I be some- and Secundus ; and Gaius of Derbe, and what filled with your company. But now 1 Timotheus ; and, of Asia, Tychicus and Trogo unto Jerusalem, to minister unto the saints ; phimus.” The epistle to the Romans, we for it hath pleased them of Macedonia and have seen, was written just before Saint Paul's Achaia to make a certain contribution for the departure from Greece, after his second visit poor saints which are at Jerusalem. It hath to that peninsula : the persons mentioned in pleased them verily, and their debtors they the quotation from the Acts are those who are : for, if the Gentiles have been made par- accompanied him in that departure. Of seven takers of their spiritual things, their duty is whose names are joined in the salutation of also to minister unto them in carnal things. the church of Rome, three, viz. Sosipater, When therefore I have performed this, and have Gaius, and Timothy, are proved, by this passealed them to this fruit, I will come by you sage in the Acts, to have been with Saint Paul into Spain.” Is the passage in Italics like a at the time. And this is perhaps as much passage foisted in for an extraneous purpose ? coincidence as could be expected from reality, Does it not arise from what goes before, by a though less, I am apt to think, than would junction as easy as any example of writing have been produced by design. Four are upon real business can furnish? Could any mentioned in the Acts who are not joined in thing be more natural than that Saint Paul, the salutation ; and it is in the nature of the in writing to the Romans, should speak of the case probable that there should be many time when he hoped to visit them, should attending Saint Paul in Greece who knew mention the business which then detained nothing of the converts at Rome, nor were him; and that he purposed to set forwards known by them. In like manner, several apon his journey to them, when that business are joined in the salutation, who are not menwas completed ?

tioned in the passage referred to in the Acts. This also was to be expected. The occasion of mentioning them in the Acts was their

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proceeding with Saint Paul upon his journey. which Epistle, Saint Paul went from Ephesus But we may be sure that there were inany into Macedonia, and," after he had gone over eminent Christians with Saint Paul in Greece, those parts,” proceeded from thience upon his besides those who accompanied him into Asia. second visit into Greece; during which visit, or

But if any one shall still contend that a rather at the conclusion of it, the Epistle to forger of the epistle, with the Acts of the the Romans, as hath been shown, was written. Apostles before him, and having settled this We have therefore the time of Saint Paul's scheme of writing a letter as from Saint residence at Ephesus after he had written to Paul upon his second visit into Greece, would the Corinthians, the time taken up by his easily think of the expedient of putting in the progress through Macedonia, (which is indefinames of those persons who appeared to be nite and was probably considerable,) and his with Saint Paul at the time, as an obvious three months' abode in Greece ; we have the recommendation of the imposture : I then sum of those three periods allowed for Aquila repeat my observations ; first, that he would and Priscilla going back to Rome, so as to be have made the catalogue more complete ; and there when the epistle before us was written. secondly, that with this contrivance in his Now what this quotation leads us to observe thoughts, it was certainly his business, in is the danger of scattering names and circumorder to avail himself of the artifice, to have stances in writings like the present, how stated in the body of the epistle, that Paul implicated they often are with dates and was in Greece when he wrote it, and that places, and that nothing but truth can prehe was there upon his second visit. Neither serve consistency. Had the notes of time in of which he has done, either directly, or even the Epistle to the Romans fixed the writing so as to be discoverable by any circumstance of it to any date prior to Saint Paul's first found in the narrative delivered in the Acts. residence at Corinth, the salutation of Aquila

Under the same head, viz, of coincidences and Priscilla would have contradicted the depending upon date, I cite from the epistle history, because it would have been prior to the following salutation : “Greet Priscilla his acquaintance with these persons. If the and Aquila, my helpers in Jesus Christ, who notes of time had fixed it to any period have for my life laid down their own necks; during that residence at Corinth, during his unto whom not only I give thanks, but also journey to Jerusalem when he first returned all the churches of the Gentiles,” (chap. out of Greece, during his stay at Antioch, xvi. 3.) – It appears from the Acts of the whither he went down to Jerusalem, or durApostles, that Priscilla and Aquila had origi- ing his second progress through the Lesser nally been inhabitants of Rome ; for we read, Asia upon which he proceeded from Autioch, (Acts, xviii. 2.) that “Paul found a certain Jew, an equal contradiction would have been named Aquila, lately come from Italy with incurred; because from Acts, xviii. 2—18, 19 his wife Priscilla, because that Claudius had –26, it appears that during all this time commanded all Jews to depart from Rome.” Aquila and Priscilla were either along with They were connected, therefore, with the Saint Paul, or were abiding at Ephesus. place to which the salutations are sent. That Lastly, had the notes of time in this epistle, is one coincidence; another is the following: which we have seen to be perfectly incidental, Saint Paul became acquainted with these coinpared with the notes of time in the First persons at Corinth during his first visit into Epistle to the Corinthians, which are equally Greece. They accompanied his return into incidental, fixed this epistle to be either conAsia, were settled for some time at Ephesus, temporary with that, or prior to it, a similar (Acts, xviii. 19—26,) and appear to have been contradiction would have ensued; because, with Saint Paul when he wrote from that first, when the epistle to the Corinthians was place his First Epistle to the Corinthians, written, Aquila and Priscilla were along with (1 Cor. xvi. 19.) Not long after the writing of Saint Paul, as they joined in the salutation

of that church, (1 Cor. xvi. 19;) and because, 1 Of these Jason is one, whose presence upon this occasion is secondly, the history does not allow us to very naturally accounted for. Jason was an inhabitant of Thesslonica in Macedonia, and entertained Saint Paul in his house suppose that between the time of their becomupon his first visit to that country, (Acts, xvii. 7.) Saint Paul, ing acquainted with Saint Paul, and the upon this his second visit, passed through Macedonia on his way to Greece, and from the situation of Thessalonica, most likely time of Saint Paul's writing to the Corinthrough that city. It appears, from various instances in the Acts, thians, Aquila and Priscilla could have gone to have been the practice of many converts to attend Saint Paul from place to place. It is therefore highly probable ---I mean

to Rome, so as to have been saluted in an that it is highly consistent with the account in the history -- that epistle to that city ; and then come back to tant of a city at no great distance from Greece, and through whiich

Saint Paul at Ephesus, so as to be joined with as it should seem Saint Paul had lately passed, should have acconpanied Saint Paul into Greece, and have been with him there at

him in saluting the church of Corinth. As this time. Lucius is another name in the epistle. A very slight it is, all things are consistent. The Epistle alteration would convert Auries into Awuxus, Lucius into Luke, which would produce an additional coincidence; for if Luke was

to the Romans is posterior even to the Second the author of the history, he was with Saint Paul at the time. Epistle to the Corinthians; because it speaks inasinuch as describing the voyage which took place soon after the writing of this epistle, the historian uses the first person,

of a contribution in Achaia being completed, sailed away from Philippi," (Aets, xx. 6.)

which the Second Epistle to the Corinthians

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