States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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But the ups and downs of their efforts — the reform - reaction interplay - attest to the difficulty of making citizens of subjects . Faced with continuing reversal in the power equation vis - à - vis the modernizing states of Europe ...
... but any lawfully constituted authority whatsoever , that was to receive the obedience of the subject . ... the duty of the subjects is to obey , whether the ruler is just or unjust , for responsibility rests with God , and the only ...
10 Shifting the focus to the individual , Ullman considers the passage from medieval to modern times to correspond to the transition from subjects to " full fledged citizens . " 11 As for Leca , the crisis of modern citizenship seems to ...
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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