States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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Russian advances in Turkestan and the Caucasus further constrain the Qajarid Persian and Ottoman spheres of influence . Later The Islamic modernist movement originates in reaction to Decades governmental efforts to Westernize ...
Petrarch's influence over his generation derived not only from his prolific literary endeavors but also from his personal example — the energy he exuded and the accolades he received . Among the intellectuals he influenced directly or ...
90 However , the influence of Western ideas , particularly those of the French Revolution remained " composite . " 91 Only selectively and after passing a test of " adaptability " were Western ideas drawn upon ; the central issue being ...
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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