States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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1 1 1 education , which included study of the Qur'an , hadith ( corpus of traditions , that is , nonrevelatory sayings and deeds of the Prophet ) , fiqh ( jurisprudence ) , and Arabic grammar and poetry .
Chapter 6 included classification of the " sciences . " First were the traditional ( what we would call Islamic , or revelation - related ) sciences , to which " there can be no further increases . " The unstated reason is that dogma ...
Such disinclination was reinforced by a surge of European imperialism within the Ottoman dominion , which included the Russian exploitation of the Balkan uprisings in 1877 , the Austrian occupation of Bosnia in 1878 , the French ...
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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