States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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... establishment of Western Europe and orthodox theology holding center place in the educational establishment of the Islamic world . Petrarch's " new studies " would spawn the Worlds Together , Worlds Apart : Cultures in History 23.
Dhimmis participated in the ruling establishment in the capacity of bureaucrats , advisors , or court physicians . Muslims who were not in the ruling ( askeri , miri ) class were considered to be in the subject ( reaya ) class .
As to the former , the West — as noted earlier - had encouraged the establishment of “ representative ” and “ participatory ” institutions in the Ottoman Empire . But when after the First World War France and Britain came to assume ...
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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