States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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For this study , I rely much on the concept of civilization , which I define as the prominent aspects of culture that are common to ... As for culture , it may be defined as all the knowledge and values shared by a given society .
The conservative bent in Islamic society is uniquely reflected in the dilemma over bid'a — defined as “ innovation , a belief or practice for which there is no precedent in the time of the prophet . ... The objection to bid'a has led ...
That relation is defined as communalism or group - centric identity . • The key determinant of ethics is kin altruism : that is , favoring relatives over self . The impulse to right conduct is kin - group loyalty .
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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