States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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Ibn Khaldun himself saw the adverse consequence of this — that memorization became the main method of learning . Yet , he agreed with discouraging speculative and innovative thinking insofar as they undermined religious faith .
8 The gravest consequence is the disinclination to innovate and invent that has long pervaded the Islamic world . Given the ultraconservative stance on bid'a , Islamic civilization had no Age of Enlightenment or Industrial Revolution of ...
... makes possible his liberation , in 14 10 “ The fourth wave of expanding citizenship rights , writes Turner , is brought about by social movements which in fact have the consequence of ascribing rights to nature and the environment .
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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