States Without Citizens: Understanding the Islamic Crisis
The ideals of civic activism and public service that inspired the Western Renaissance are absent in the Islamic world. Islamic religio-moral ethics aim at salvation; Islamic social ethics aim at clan dominance. Western-inspired solutions to the Islamic crisis are inappropriate to Islamic states, in as much as they are states without citizens. To mitigate the violence engendered by the Islamic crisis, culturally authentic institutions must be created that will instill a civic ethics of common cause and public service. The author recommends this approach for policy makers and development managers and deplores the dangerous vacuity of such drumbeat cliches as the clash of civilizations that have gained currency in the war on terrorism.
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The Ottoman siege of Vienna marks furthest advance of sultan's armies . ... 1683–1699 “ Holy League ” victory reverses the trend of Ottoman expansion into Central Europe ; the Ottomans cede Hungary and adjoining lands to Austria .
The critical nature of these new challenges was made unmistakably clear by the defeats of the Ottomans before ... initiated under the Ottoman Tanzimat ( 1839-1876 ) .87 First , military training schools with French instructors were ...
110 Finally , to the new generation of Ottoman reformists , the “ New Ottomans , " the Tanzimat - particularly in their enumeration of the privileges of the Christians as in the Hatt - i Humayun were seen as unjustified concessions ...
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Cultures in History
Contrast in Ethics
Critique of Endeavors
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