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In both these passages we perceive the high respect paid to the words of Christ as recorded by the eyangelists : " Remember the words of the Lord Jesus—by this command and by these rules let us establish ourselves, that we may always walk obediently to his holy words." We perceive also in Clement a total unconsciousness of doubt, whether these were the real words of Christ, which are read as such in the gospels. This observation indeed belongs to the whole series of testimony, and especially to the most ancient part of it. Whenever any thing now read in the gospels is met with in an early Christian writing, it is always observed to stand there as acknowledged. truth, i. e. to be introduced without hesitation, doubt, or apology. It is to be observed also, that as this epistle was written in the name of the church of Rome, and addressed to the church of Corinth, it ought to be taken as exhibiting the judgment not only of Clement, who drew up the letter, but of these churches themselves, at least as to the authority of the books referred to.

It may be said, that, as Clement hath not used words of quotation, it is not certain that he refers to any book whatever. The words of Christ, which he has put down, he might himself have heard from the apostles, or might have

eceived through the ordinary medium of oral tradition. This bath been said; but that no such inference can be drawn from the absence of words of quotation is proved by the three following considerations : First, that Clement, in the very same manner, namely, without any

mark of reference, uses a passage now found in the epistle to the Romans ;* which passage, from the peculiarity of the words which compose it, and from their order, it is manifest that he must have taken from the book. The same remark may be repeated of some very singular sentiments in the epistle to the Hebrews. Secondly, that there are many sentences of St. Paul's first epistle to the Corinthi. ans, standing in Clement's epistles without any sign of quotation, which yet certainly are quotations; because it appears that Clement had St. Paul's epistle before him, inasmuch as in one place he mentions it in terms too express to leave us in any doubt66 Take into your hands the epistle of the blessed apostle Paul."

Thirdly, that this method af adopting words of scripture without reference or acknowledgment, was, as will appear in the sequel, a method in general use amongst the most ancient Christian writers; these analogies not only repel the ob

. Rom, i. 29.

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jection, but cast the presumption on the other side; and afford a considerable degree of positive proof that the words in question have been borrowed from the places of scripture in which we now find them.

But take it, if you will the other way, that Clement had heard these words from the apostles or first teachers of Christianity; with respect to the precise point of our argument, viz. that the scriptores contain what the apostles taught, this supposition may serve almost as well.

IL Near the conclusion of the epistle to the Romans, St. Paul, amongst others, sends the following salutation : * Salute Aspocritus. Phlegon, Hermos, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them."

Of Hermas, ubo appears in this catalogue of Roman Christians as contemporary with St. Paul, a book bearing the name, and (it is most probable) rigbily, is still remaining. It is called the Shepherd or Pastor of Hermas.* Its antiquity is incontestable, from the quotations of it in Irenæus, A. D. 178, Clement of Alexandria, A. D. 194, Tertullian, A. D. 200, Origen, A. D. 230. The potes of time extant in the epistle itself agree with its title, and with the testimonies concerning it, for it purports to have been written during the life-time of Clement.

In this piece are tacit allusions to St. Matthew's, St. Luke's, and St. John's gospels, that is to say, there are applications of thoughts and expressions found in these gospels, without citing the place or writer from which they were taken. In this form appear in Hermas the confessing and denying of Christ; the parable of the seed sown; the comparison of Christ's disciples to little children ; the saying, " he that putteth away his wife and marrieth another, committeth adultery." The singular expression," having received all power from his Father," in probable allusion to Matt. xxviii. 18. and Christ being the “ gate," only way of coming “ to God,” in plain allusion to John xiv. 6-X. 7, 9. There is also a probable allusion to Acts v. 32.

This piece is the representation of a vision, and has by many been accounted a weak and fanciful performance. I therefore observe, that the character of the writing has little to do with the purpose for which we adduce it. It is the age in which it was composed that gives the value to its testimony.

IV. Ignatius, as it is testified by ancient Christian writers, became bishop of Antioch about thirty-seven years

afLardner's Cred. vol. I. p. 111.

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ter Christ's ascension; and therefore, from his time, and
place, and station, it is probable that he had known and
conversed with many of the apostles. Epistles of ignatius
are referred to by Polycarp his contempory.

found in the episiles now extant under his name, are quoted
by Irenæus, A. D. 178 ; by Origen, A. D. 230; and the
occasion of writing the epistie is given at large by Eusebius
and Jerome. What are called the smaller epist'es of lg-
natius are generally deemed to be those which were read
by Irenæus, Origen, and Eusebius. *

In these epistles are various undoubted allusions to the gospels of St. Matthew and St. John; yet so far of the same form with those in the preceding articles, that, like them, they are not accompanied with marks of quotation. Of these allusions the following are clear specimens :

“Christ was baptized of John, that all rightMatth.

eousness might be fulfilled by him.

Be ye wise as serpents in all things, and harmless as a dove."

" Yet the spirit is not deceived, being from

God; for it knows whence it comes and whither

it goes."

“ He (Christ) is the door of the Father, by
which enter in Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob,

and the apostles, and the church.”
As to the manner of quotation, this is observable :-Ig-
natius, in one place, speaks of St. Paul in terms of high re-
spect, and quotes his epistle to the Ephesians by name; yet
in several other places he borrows words and sentiments
from the same epistle without mentioning it: which shows,
that this was his general manner of using and applying
writings then extant, and then of high authority.

V. Polycarp had been taught by the apostles; had con-
versed with many who had seen Christ; was also by the
apostles appointed bishop of Smyrna. This testimony con-
cerning Polycarp is given by Irenæus, who in his youth
had seen him. “ I can tell the place,” saith Irenæus, “in
which the blessed Polycarp sat and taught, and his going
out and coming in, and the manner of his life, and the

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* Ib. vol. I. p. 147. + üï. 15." For thus it becomes us to fulfil all righteousness." xi. 16. " Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves."

iji. 8.“The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but oanst not tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth ; so is every one that is born of the Spirit.” x. I. "I am tbe door; by me if any man enter in he shall be saved."

$ 1b. vol. I. P.


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form of his person, and the discourses he made to the people, and how he related his conversation with John and others who had seen the Lord, and how he related their sayings, and what he had heard concerning the Lord, both concerning his miracles and his doctrine, as he had received them from the eye-witnesses of the word of life; all which Polycarp related agreeable to the scriptures."

Of Polycarp, whose proximity to the age, and country and persons of the apostles, is thus attested, we have one undoubted epistle remaining. And this, though a short letter, contains nearly forty clear allusions to books of the New Testament; which is strong evidence of the respect which Christians of that age bore for these books.

Amongst these, although the writings of St. Paul are more frequently used hy Polycarp than other parts of scripture, there are copious allusions to the gospel of St. Matthew, some to passages found in the gospels both of Matthew and Luke, and some which more nearly resemble the words in Luke.

I select the following, as fixing the authority of the Lord's prayer, and the use of it amongst the primitive Christians. 6 If therefore we pray the Lord that he will forgive us, we ought also to forgive."

6. With supplication beseeching the all-seeing God not to lead us into temptation."

And the following for the sake of repeating an observation already made, that words of our Lord, found in our gospels were at this early day quoted as spoken by him; and not only so, but quoted with so little question or consciousness of doubt, about their being really his words, as not even to mention, much less to canvass, the authority from which they were taken.

“But remembering what the Lord said, teaching, judge not, that ye be not judged; forgive and ye shall be forgiven; be ye merciful, that ye may obtain mercy: with what measure ye mete it shall be measured to you again.”

Supposing Polycarp to have had these words from the books in which we now find them, it is manifest that these books were considered by bim, and, as he thought, considered by his readers, as authentic accounts of Christ's discourses; and that that point was incontestable.

The following is a decisive, though what we call a tacit reference to St. Peter's speech in the acts of the apostles;

-“ whom God hath raised, having loosed the pains of death."

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VI. Papias,* a hearer of John, and companion of Polycarp, as Irenæus attests, and of that age, as all agree, in a passage quoted by Eusebius, from a work now lost, expressly ascribes the respective gospels to Matthew and Mark; and in a manner which proves that these gospels must have publicly borne the names of these authors at that time, and probably long before ; for Papias does not say, that one gospel was written by Matthew, and another by Mark, but assuming this as perfectly well known, he tells us from what materials Mark collected his account, viz. from Peter's preaching, and in what language Matthew wrote, viz. in Hebrew. Whether Papias was well informed in this statement or not, to the point for which I produce his testimony, namely, that these books bore these names at this time, his authority is complete.

VII. The writers hitherto allege, had all lived and conversed with some of the apostles. The works of theirs which remain, are in general very short pieces, yet rendered extremely valuable by their antiquity; and none, short as they are, but what contain some important testimony to our historical scriptures.

Not long after these, that is, not much more than twenty years after the last, follows Justin Martyr.f His remaining works are much larger than

any that have yet been noticed. Although the nature of his two principal writings, one of which was addressed to heathens, and the other was a conference with a Jew, did not lead him to such frequent appeals to Christian books, as would have appeared in a discourse intended for Christian readers; we nevertheless reckon up in them between twenty and thirty quotations of the gospels and Acts of the apostles, certain, distinct, and copious; if each verse be counted separately, a much greater number; if each expression, a very great one.

We meet with quotations of three of the gospels within the compass of half a page: 6 and in other words he says,

* Ib. vol. I. p. 239. + That the quotations are more thinly strown in these, than in the writings of the next, and of succeeding ages is, in a good measure, accounted for by the observation, that the scriptures of the New Testament had not yet, nor by their recency hardly could have become a general part of Christian education; read, as the Old Testament was by Jews and Christians from their childhood, and there by intimately mixing, as that had og done, with all their religious ideas, and with their Janguage upon religious subjicis. In process of time, and as soon perhaps as could be expected, this came to be the case. And when we perceive the effect, in a proportionably greater frequency, as well as copiousness of allusion. Mich. Inter. c. ii. Sect. iv.

Vol. I. p. 258. f“ He cites our present canon, and particularly our four gospels continually, I dare say, above two bundred tine's." Jones's new and full method. Appen, vol. I. p. 539 ed. 1726.



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