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" It is extremely doubtful whether there is enough information in "win lose, or draw" when referred to the whole play of the game to permit any learning at all over available time scales.... For learning to take place, each play of the game must yield much... "
Machine Intelligence and Robotics: Report of the NASA Study Group : Final Report - Page 432
by NASA Study Group on Machine Intelligence and Robotics - 1980 - 400 pages
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Artificial Intelligence: Critical Concepts, Volume 2

Ronald Chrisley, Sander Begeer - Artificial intelligence - 2000 - 586 pages
...this error, "Delta," is used for reinforcement: thus the system may learn something at each move.19 D The basic credit-assignment problem for complex...with the number of mechanisms in the chess-playing machine."" We are in complete agreement with Newell on this approach to the problem.21 It is my impression...
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The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the ...

Marvin Minsky - Science - 2007 - 400 pages
...information. ... If a goal is achieved, its subgoals are reinforced; if not they are inhibited. . . . Every tactic that is created provides information...success or failure of likelihood inferences and so on." Thus, when you finally achieve a goal, you should assign some credit for this to the higher-level method...
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