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Suppofing Polycarp to have had thefe words from the books in which we now find them, it is manifeft that these books were confidered by him, and, as he thought, confidered by his readers, as authentic accounts of Chrift's difcourfes; and that that point was incontestable.

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The following is a decifive, though what we call a tacit, reference to St. Peter's speech in the Acts of the Apoftles::-"whom God hath raised, having loofed the pains of death *"

VI. Papias †, a hearer of John, and companion of Polycarp, as Irenæus attefts, and of that age as all agree, in a paffage quoted by Eufebius, from a work now loft, expressly afcribes the refpective gofpels to Matthew and Mark; and in a manner which proves, that thefe gofpels must have publicly borne the names of thefe authors at that time, and probably long before; for

*Acts ii. 24. 4

+ Lardner's Cred. vol. i. p. 239. Papias

Papias does not fay, that one gospel was written by Matthew, and another by Mark; but, affuming this as perfectly well known, he tells us from what materials Mark collected his account, viz. from Peter's preaching, and in what language Matthew wrote, viz. in Hebrew. Whether Papias was well informed in this ftatement or not; to the point from which I produce this teftimony, namely, that these books bore these names at this time, his authority is complete.

The writers hitherto alledged, had all lived and converfed with fome of the apoftles. The works of theirs which remain, are in general very short pieces, yet rendered extremely valuable by their antiquity; and none, short as they are, but what contain fome important teftimony to our historical scriptures*.

VII. Not

* That the quotations are more thinly frown in thefe, than in the writings of the next and of fucceeding ages, is, in a good measure, accounted for by the observation, that the fcriptures of the New Teftament


VII. Not long after thefe, that is, not much more than twenty years after the last, follows Juftin Martyr. His remaining works are much larger than any that have yet been noticed. Although the nature of his two principal writings, one of which was addreffed to heathens, and the other was a conference with a Jew, did not lead hịm to fuch frequent appeals to Chriftian books, as would have appeared in a discourse intended for Chriftian readers; we neverthelefs reckon up in them between twenty and thirty quotations of the Gofpels and Acts of the Apostles, certain, distinct, and copious ; if each verse be counted separately, a much

had not yet, nor by their recency hardly could have, become a general part of Chriftian education; read, as the Old Teftament was, by Jews and Christians from their childhood, and thereby intimately mixing, as that had long done, with all their religious ideas, and with their language upon religious fubjects. In procefs of time, and as foon perhaps as could be expected, this came to be the cafe. And then we perceive the effect, in a proportionably greater frequency, as well as copiouf nefs of allufion t.

*Lardner's Cred. vol. i. p. 258.

+ Mich. Intr. c. ii. fect. vi.



greater number; if each expreffion, a a very

great one*.

We meet with quotations of three of the gofpels within the compass of half a page; "and in other words he fays, Depart from me into outer darkness, which the Father hath prepared for Satan and his angels," (which is from Matthew xxv. 41.) " And again he said in other words, I give unto you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and venomous beasts, and upon all the power of the enemy." (This from Luke x. 19.) "And, before he was crucified, he said, The fon of man muft fuffer many things, and be rejected of the Scribes and Pharifees, and be crucified, and rise again the third day." (This from Mark viii. 31.)

In another place Juftin quotes a paffage in the hiftory of Chrift's birth, as delivered

*He cites our prefent canon, and particularly our four Gofpels continually, I dare fay, above two hundred times." Jones's New and Full Method. Appen. vol. i. p. 589, ed. 1726.


by Matthew and John, and fortifies his quotation by this remarkable teftimony; as

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they have taught, who have writ the history of all things concerning our Saviour Jefus Chrift; and we believe them.".

Quotations alfo are found from the Gofpel of St. John.

What, moreover, feems extremely matęrial to be observed, is, that in all Juftin's works, from which might be extracted almoft a complete life of Chrift, there are but two instances, in which he refers to any thing as faid or done by Chrift, which is not related concerning him in our present gofpels which fhews, that these gospels, and thefe, we inay fay, alone, were the authorities from which the Chriftians of that day drew the information upon which they depended. One of these instances is of a faying of Chrift not met with in any book now extant*. The other of a circumftance in


"Wherefore alfo our Lord Jefus Chrift has faid,

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