Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, for the Year ..., Volumes 1-2; Volumes 4-5

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Page 132 - CARBONATED SPRINGS. Springs of water, containing carbonic acid gas. They are very common, especially in volcanic countries; and sometimes contain so much gas, that if a little sugar be thrown into the water it effervesces like sodawater. CARBONIC ACID GAS. A natural gas which often issues from the ground, especially in volcanic countries.
Page 122 - ... greenish grey. These occur often in spots and stripes, so that the series has sometimes been called the variegated sandstone. The European formation so called lies in a geological position immediately above the coal measures.
Page 122 - The combination of a metal with oxygen ; rust is oxide of iron. Oxygen. — One of the constituent parts of the air of the atmosphere; that part which supports life. For a further explanation of the word, consult elementary works on chemistry.
Page 123 - PYRITES (Iron). A compound of sulphur and iron, found usually in yellow shining crystals like brass, and in almost every rock stratified and unstratified. The shining metallic bodies, so often seen in common roofing slate, are a familiar example of the mineral. The word is Greek, and comes from irvp, pyr, fire, because, under particular circumstances, the stone produces spontaneous heat and even inflammation.
Page 131 - Bitumen. — Mineral pitch, of which the tar-like substance which is often seen to ooze out of the Newcastle coal when on the fire, and which makes it cake, is a good example.
Page 139 - OXIDE. The combination of a metal with oxygen; rust is oxide of iron. OXYGEN. One of the constituent parts of the air of the atmosphere ; that part which supports life. For a further explanation of the word, consult elementary works on chemistry.
Page 142 - Low hills which skirt or lie at the foot of the great chain of the Apennines in Italy. The term Subapennine is applied geologically to a series of strata of the Older Pliocene period. SYENITE. A kind of granite, so called because it was brought...
Page 136 - Beds of sand, sandstone, limestone, belonging to the Cretaceous period. The name is given to these beds because they often, but not always, contain an abundance of green earth or chlorite scattered through the substance of the sandstone, limestone, &c. Greenstone, a variety of trap, composed of hornblende and felspar.
Page 142 - TERTIARY STRATA. A series of sedimentary rocks, with characters which distinguish them from two other great series of strata, — the secondary and primary, which lie beneath them. TESTACEA. Molluscous animals, having a shelly covering.

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