The Present Tense in Modern Hindi Fiction
The Present Tense in Modern Hindi Fiction contributes to the interpretation of Hindi prose by analysing the use of the present tense in over 250 texts. While sketching the history of the present tense in Hindi fiction, the book focuses primarily on the narrative techniques that invite its use, such as interior monologue, free indirect discourse, consonant psycho-narration, and camera eye. Moreover, it offers a fresh interpretation of the two types of present tense found in Hindi. The indexes of authors, titles, and analytical concepts provide easy access to the analyses. The book will also be of interest to scholars studying the use of the present tense in modern fiction worldwide. The present tense is used more widely in Hindi than in languages such as English, and some trends that are also found in the literatures of other languages (such as the occurrence of the present tense in internal sensory focalisation) are more clearly visible in Hindi fiction. More importantly, a new explanation of present-tense passages is proposed which can also be applied elsewhere. Insight into this technique, referred to as Internal Focalisation of Awareness, leads to a better understanding of present-tense texts.
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Quoted discourse and internal focalisation
Internal focalisation of awareness
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actions actorial addresses appears awareness beginning belongs brief called chapter character character-bound character's close comes concerned consonant psycho-narration contains contents continuous present contrast deals direct discussed effect emotional entire example experiencing explained expresses eyes fact feelings final flashback forms frequent furnished girl haiṁ hand Hindi hūm indicated initial inquit insight interior monologue internal focalisation interpretation introduced lack later leave less look main character means mind moment mother nahim narrative narrator narratorial nature noted novel observed occurs paragraph passage past tense perception performing person preceding present tense protagonist quoted raha rahi reader refer remembers retroversions reveals scene seems seen sentence shows similar situation starts story style subjective suggests take place taken takes techniques tells term thinking third thoughts tion told verb woman written