## Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and ComputationUnderstanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and cognitive development, and moreover, the causal learning mechanisms it has uncovered go dramatically beyond the traditional mechanisms of both nativist theories, such as modularity theories, and empiricist ones, such as association or connectionism. |

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The Causal

The Causal

**Markov**Assumption For any variable X in an acyclic causal graph, X is independent of all other variables in the graph (except for its own direct ... Page 5

The causal

The causal

**Markov**assumption generalizes this screening-off principle to all acyclic causal graphs. Thus, if we know the structure of the graph and know the ... Page 7

The Faithfulness Assumption In the joint distribution on the variables in the graph, all conditional independencies are consequences of the

The Faithfulness Assumption In the joint distribution on the variables in the graph, all conditional independencies are consequences of the

**Markov**... Page 23

... Y → Z (1-2) Let us make the standard Bayes net assumption connecting causation and probabilities: the causal

... Y → Z (1-2) Let us make the standard Bayes net assumption connecting causation and probabilities: the causal

**Markov**condition CM, according to which, ...Page 66

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Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz Limited preview - 2007 |

Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz Limited preview - 2007 |

Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz Limited preview - 2007 |

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