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propagation of the Christian faith, bius it is made the bounds of the viz. that after the martyrdom of Gospel to the west.

From these St. Stephen, the disciples for some authorities (especially that of Cletime* preached the word to the mens Romanus) it follows, pot Jews only, and that Cornelius (six only that the Gospel was preached years after) is said to be the first in Britain in the times of the aposfruits of the Gentiles (before which tles, but that St. Paul himself was time, according to this supposition, the preacher of it. This is further there would be Gentile converts in confirmed by observing :—that from Britain);- not to observe this, the time of his being set at liberty, the above passage of Gildas has in the 5th year of Nero, to his rebeen evidently misunderstood, and turn to Rome, were eight years; misapplied. For he speaks of a which, the ancient writers of the double shining of the Gospel; one church generally agree, were spent more general to the world, in the in the western parts:--that, having latter end of Tiberius Cæsar; the taken his solemn leave of the eastern other more particular to this island, parts, and assured them, that at the time he is then speaking of, they should see his face no more,' about the middle of Nero's reign t. it cannot be supposed that 'he reSo that what he affirms concerning turned thither, but that he employthe first preaching of the Gospel, ed his time in planting the Gospel has been unduly applied to the par- elsewhere :--that Gildas saith, ibe ticular preaching of it in the island Gospel was here received before the of Britain. It is affirmed (Suillingfl. fatal defeat of the Britons by Sue Orig. Brit. p. 35), upon very good tonius Paulinus,' which was the seevidence, that a Christian church venth or eighth of Nero; i. c. the was planted in Britain, during the third or fourth of those eight years, times of the apostles. To this pure which, ancient writers say, St. Paul pose, it is alleged, that Eusebius spent in the western parts:--that. (Demon. Evan. l. iii. c. 7.) expressly the traditions about St. James, Sisays, that some of the apostles mon Zelotes, and Philip, as preachpassed over the ocean • to those ing the Gospel here, are all destiwhich are called the British isles:' tule both of ancient testimony, and

that Theodoret expressly of probability.”-Upon this long names the Britons among the na- quotation (which seems to compretions converted by the apostles; hend all that can be advanced in and saith elsewhere, that • St. Paul favour of the opinion in question), brought salvation to the islands I would be permitted to make three that lie in the ocean:'--that Cle- observations. mens Romanus saith, that St. Paul L Chronologers have differed so

preached righteousness through materially in the dates which they the wbole world, and, in so doing, have assigned to the various trans

went to the utmost bounds of the actions of St. Paul's life (the exwest:' which Britain was at that treme variation respecting that of time understood to be, and is there. his conversion, being nine years), fore called by Catullus, · Ultimam that but little force can be allowed occidentis insulam;' as by Arno. to Bishop Gibson's difficulty of dis- ,

posing of the eight years after Paul's Some think twelve years. In reference release at Rome. It is, however, to the first preaching of St. Paul at Antioch the opinion of Dr. Lardner (who (A. D. 43), Witsius, as quoted hy Dr. Lard quotes Basnage, Pagi, and Du Pia der, has the following passage. ... Hoc pri as holding the same) that the marmum exemplum est evangelii publice gentibus prædicati

. Nam alierum illud Corne tyrdom of St. Paul took place in the lii non nisi domesticum fuit." De Vita Paul. year 65 at the latest, and his liberaSect. 3. Num. 3.

tion in 63; which leaves little more 1 A. D. 641

than two years to be accounted for.

as

Bossuet and Du Fresnoy fix his when spoken of things future, does martyrdom in 66. Pearson, Percy, not (as it is used by St. Paul) alWitsias, and some others, in 68. ways signify a certain knowledge, But the largest space of time allow. or å prophetic certainty; but often ed between these two events, by means only thas much: I take it any (Baronius excepted, whose for granted: I am fully persuaded : chronology Stillingfleet chiefly fol. I foresee it highly provible: I have lows), is five years.

no other 'erpectation : and the like.' , II. This space we find thus ac- Besides Capellus and Wall, already counted for by Dr. Lardner*. "I alleged, I might refer to others, am apt to think that Paul came from who hesitate not at all to allow, that Rome to Jerusalem, as soon and as Paul came again into this country, directly as he could. But he made particularly Le Clerc, and L'Enfant, there a short stay only. From Ju- and Beausobre (upon Acts xx. 25), dea I think it likely that he went to and Pearson. Not now to mention Ephesus, and there left Timothy, any more." whom about two years before he Dr. Paley also, in arguing upon had sent for to come to him from this point, adduces the following Ephesus to Rome. From Ephesus, striking instance of the small weight Paul might go to Laodicea and Co- that attaches to the mode of exlosse. And possibly, he returned to pression here used by the apostle. Rome, by Troas, Philippi, and Co. - In the first chapter of the Epistle rinth. Some have hesitated to al. to the Philippians, and the twentylow, that St. Paul ever came again fifth verse, I know,' says St. Paul, into this country, because he says that I shall abide and continue (Acts. xx. 25), • And now, be- with you all, for your joy and furhold, I know, that ye all, among therance of faith. Notwithstanding whom I have gone preaching the this strong declaration, in the sekingdom of God, shall see my face cond chapter and twenty-third verse no more. But Lewis Capell has of this same epistle, and speaking well removed that difficulty. I also of the very same event, he is therefore have placed below, a part content to use a language of doubt of bis observationst. And says and uncertainty: Hiin, therefore, Wall (Notes upon the N.T. p. 255.) I hope to send presently, so soon spon the place: · Eyw olda, I know, as I shall see how it will go with me;

but I trust in the Lord that I also Hist. of the Apost. and Evang. Vol. ii. myself shall come shortly. And a P. 134. + " Sed respondere potest, Paulum non

few verses preceding these, he not semel ex hunana conjectura, atque ex hu- only seems to doubt of his safety, mano spiritu, concilio, et proposito, multa but almost to despair; to contemejusmodi cogitasse, putasse, proposuisse, ac plate the possibility at least of his dirisse. Quæ tamen postea, Deo ita dispo

condemnation and martyrdom: tente, aliter ceciderunt. Itaque mirum vi- · Yea, and if I be offered upon the deri non debet, si cum Spiritus Paulum oppi- sacrince and service of your faith, datin moneret vincula ei aflictiones graves I joy and rejoice with you all.'” manere eum Jerosolimise sentiretque se Horæ Paul. Chap. ii. spiritu ligatum, ut eo piliilominus profiscere.

Bishop Pearson has given us an tut, Desciens quænam essent illic ventura, apostolic Itinerary, nearly similar desperavit de reditu suo ad eos, quos post se relinquebat, licet Deo ita disponente...

to that of Dr. Lardner. We have, fa aliquot post annis ceciderit aliter, quam that St. Paul visited Judea, after his

however, no authority for supposing ipse tum credebat. Non est itaque tam validum adversus nos argumentum illud, liberation, since from the three ut to subvertatur sententia nostra de Pauli epistles written subsequently to that reditu in Oricnten, post soluta Romana ejus event, it does not appear that he vincula." Lud. Capel. Hist. Apost. illustrat. either proposed to himself, or had A 34.

accomplished such a design. "Upon the whole then (to use the words of Preface to St. Paul's Epistles, say, that most acute investigator, Paley), the bounds of the West signify nos if we may be allowed to suppose thing but the West. It is an expresthat St. Paul, after bis liberation at sion, they say, borrowed from the Rome, sailed into Asia, taking Crete Scriptures, in which the borders of in his way; that from Asia, and

a country denote the country itself, from Ephesus, the capital of that In a like manner, by those words, country, he proceeded into Macedo. Clement intended Italyt."-Bishop nia, and, crossing the peninsula in Stillingfleet (whose arguments Gibhis progress, came into the neigh- son has condensed) in endeavouring bourhood of Nicopolis; we have a

to prove, that by Clement's expresroute which falls in with every sion, “ the utmost bounds of the thing."-"I confess that the jour- West, the British isles were espeney which we have thus traced out cially understood,” quotes Herodofor St. Paul, is, in a great measure, tus as 'saying (lib. iv), “ the Celtæ hypothetic; but it should be ob- are the most western of all the Eu. served, that it is a species of con- ropeans." Stillingfleet adds; "and sistency, which seldom belongs to among these the remotest were the falsehood, to admit of an hypothe- Britons +.” Now, if Stillingfleet by sis, which includes a great number this designed to inform us, that the of independent circumstances, with Britons were Celts, the communi. out contradiction.” Hor. Paul. c. cation of a fact so well known, was xiii. a 2.

certainly unnecessary; but if he III. It now remains, in the last conceived that either this communiplace, to consider the testimony of cation, or the passage of Herodotus, the fathers, brought forward by would assist his argument, he apGibson. Dr. Lardner may lead us pears to have been mistaken. For, to determine, in what light is to be in the first place, the Celts were viewed that of Clemens Romanus, very little known to the ancients, upon which Gibson lays the prin- till long after the time of Herodotus; cipal stress*. " Whither Paul went, and Herodotus himself acknowledges after he had obtained his liberty, all the countries beyond the Dahas been debated. Some think that nube to be utterly unknown. Sehe went from Rome to Spain ; others condly, in the passage quoted, Herosee not sufficient reason for that sup- dotus is actually speaking of the position. Among these are L'En Celts at the Southern extremity of fant and Beausobre, Basnage, and Spain near the Promontorium sacrum Cellarius, and Da Pin. That Paul (now Cape St. Vincent), which was went into Spain, has been argued from then conceived to be the ne plus ulan expression of Ciement, in his irą of the West

In the same Epistle to the Corinthians, who there place, Stillingfleet further contends, says of Paul, that having come to that “ the utmost bounds of the the borders of the West, and having West,” must mean Britain, because, suffered martyrdom, he went to the " before the discovery of Britain, the holy place;' which some have ren: Morini, who lived over against it, dered, the utmost bounds of the West, and argue, that hereby is meant

* Thus, too, it may be observed, the er. Spain. I rather think that Clement pression, " The isles of the Gentiles,” by an only meant Italy or Rome, where llebrew idiom, signifies, not only islands Clement was, and where Paul suf- strictly so speaking, but also any tract of fered. From a nole of Le Clerc up- country lying near the sea-side, and at some on the place, we learn, that Bishop distunce from Palestine. Fell so understood Clement. L'En

Vide Stillingfl. Orig. Sacræ, p. 384. fant and Beausobre, in their general + Orig. Brit. p. 38.

Vide Pelloutier's Hist. des Celtes, * Hist. Apost. &c, vol. II. p. 130,

vols. I. and III.

were said to be the utmost people of the histories of bishops and marthe earth. So Virgil calls them.ex. tyrs.*') tremos bominum Morinos.'” Unfor. Upon the particular point under tunately, this passage disagrees ex- consideration, Spanheim has deli?remely with the Bisbop's reason- yered his opinion in another part of ings; and proves how little stress his workst, where, among these Apoought to be laid upon an uncoti. erypha, he places the histories which nected expression. Virgil began relate, not only, that St. Paul brought to write the Æneid in the year B.C. the light of the Gospel from Spain to 27; and the invasion of Britain by England, but that' bishoprics were Julius Cæsar, had taken place twen, instituted and apportioned there, eity-eight years before. The exist- ther by the apostles, or apostolic ence, therefore, of a country beyond men, He rejects, as equally fabuthat of the Morini could not have lous, the account of the three archveen supposed unknown to him, bishoprics and lwenty-eight bishopeven though no proof thereof had rics, established in the reign of been extant. But Ecl. I, con- king Lucius lains this line ; written too before le the same apocryphal class, he the passage in the Æneid, above places the visits to this country, cited.

of James the son of Zebedee, Jo£t penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.*

* Nec finis fabellarum est quibus Christi, It follows then, that, by a poetical apostolorun, lxx. discipulorum, fundalorum licence, Virgil terms the Morini, ecclesiarum per Italiam, Galliam, Germa. extremos honinum; and he thus ceases nian, Hispaniam, Britanniam, &c. ita quoto be an ally of the Bishop.

que tot episcoporum ac martyrum histoClement, then, it appears, has rias, vel conspurcarunt, vel de suo integras been misunderstood; and with re

finxeront hujusmodi Apocryphia.--Ibidem.

Can. 10. spect to the fathers who expressly

Delectus historiæ apostolicæ, ubi desinit name Britain, the judgment of fr.

Lucas in Actis. Unde alicubi J. Scaliger, d Spanheim, which is also that of

fine Actorum Apostolicorum ad tempora Plinii learned men in general, will proba- Junioris, nihil eerti haberi in historia ecclesiæ. bly be deemed sufficiently decisive. Dionysius Octavius in Rationar. de eodem in, " It is,” says he,“ beyond a doubt, tervail.), Pleraque fabulis et incertis narrathat the ancient and authentic fa- tionibus aspersa. Ibid. Hist. Ch. Secul. 1. thers made by far too great a use of Seci. 6.-I have added this last quotation, apocryphal writings : of which, es- because, as the case in question is, in some pecially in Clemens Alex., Origen, degree, reduced to an argumentum ad vercEusebius, &c. there are obvious ex. cundiam, I was willing to bring forward some amplest.” In another place he says; be produced from Spanheim. This nuust

additional authorities. Many more might " there is no end to the stories which these Apocrypha have either tations and references, which I have thought

also plead my excuse for the numerous quowholly invented, or have intermin- it necessary to make. gled with the history of Christ, the

† Geograph. Sacr. et Eccles. Vol. I. pp. 173, apostles, the seventy disciples, and 174, 175. the founders of the churches # Fox (Acts and Mon. p. 106. 4th Ed. throughout Italy, France, Germany, 1583), in bis hatred of Popery, is very unSpain, England, &c.; and also with willing to allow Lucius the honour of intro

ducing Christianity into England, by means See also Georg. III. 25.

of Pope Eleutherius ; and adduces, among 1 Indubium tamen est Apocryphis plus other arguments against the fact, the cir. zatis deinceps usos esse genuinos et antiquos cumstance, that the English and Scots, by patres, cumprimis inde à Clemente Alexan- the testimony of Bede, and the Abbot of drino, Origiuc, Eusebio, &c. exemplis ob- Cluniac, celebrated their Easter, not after

the Roman, but Greek manner. He inclives Spanhem. Canou. Crit. Can. 11. p. 497. to believe, that the Gospel was brought hi

Vul. I. Opp. Leyd. ther, either by Joseph of Arimathæa, or by

seph of Arimathæa*, Simon Zelotes, terms them “ fictions invented by Simon Peter, Aristobulus, and Phi- monks, for the purpose of exaltlip with his twelve disciples ; and ing the credit of their respective

some of the apostles or their disciples. it, where he was reiraculously preserved and “ Thus," he adds, “ this realme and ileland fed, till the destruction of Jerusalem by of Britaine was eftsoones reduced to the Titus, when he sallied forth, and niade the faith and law of the Lord, according as was best of his way to Ireland. After perfornipropliecied by Esay, as wel of that, as other ing to the Irish the good office of ridding ilelands mo, where he sayth, ch. 42. He their country of all venonjous animals, he shall not faint nor geve over, till hee hath set proceeded to England, where he founded the judgement in earth, and ilelands shall wait abbey of Glastonbury. His body, says a for his law.” Archbishop Usher, however, monkish writer, is supposed to be buried who, in bis Brit. Eccles. Antiq. has treated at Hamden Hill, in that neighbourhood; this subject at large, quotes Gotcelinus, as and with it two phials full ; " sudore Christi saying, that the customs and ceremonies of sangaineo," which he brought with him the British church were received from Eleu: froin the Holy Land. Whenever liis burytherius, as well as from the disciples of the ing-place shall be discovered, an larvest of apostles ; and observes that Matihew Paris miracles is to grow upon the spot. The and Matthew of Westminster assert the same. abbey of Glastonbury is also said to have Usher agrees with Bishop Godwin in sup- owed its origin to the Irish apostle, St. pusing that Lucius was king over a part Patrick, Circ. A. D. 425; but Bishop Siilonly of Britain, and in a quarter which led lingfleet rejects his charier, mentioned by been subdued by the Romans. He is said to William of Malmesbury, and printed in the have been converted by Timothy, the disciple Monasticon. St. Dunstan was afterwards of St. Paul, and son of Claudia, the native of the superior of this abbey; of whom so Britain; and it is added, that by means of many absurd tales have been invented Fagants and Damianus (the instructors he and propagated by the monks.am Tane had requested of the Pope) three thou- ner observes (Pref. Notitia Monastica) sand academics of Cambridge were con- “ The original of Monks in Britain may be verted and baptized in one day. It must be dated from the first plantation of Christianity acknowledged that this is a miracle not likely therein, if we may credit a very learned to be repeated. Bower (Hist. of Popes, Vol.1.) gentleman (Sir G. Mackensy, in his desays, that the history of Lucius rests upon fence of the Royal Line of Scotland), who Bede's authority ouly ; rejecting the monkish tells us, “it is probable that some of the annals, &c. of which Usher has made so

Druids, having been converted from the much use. Vide Maitland's London, pp. 498 pagan religion, whereof they were the priests, and 580. Also H. Whartou's Hist. de Epis- became our first monks, being thereunto copis et decanis Londinens.—Mr. Strutt in-' much inclined, by the severity of their for timates his opinion, that the Britons were ner discipline.' But, however, 'ris just to converted in the reign of Lucius; but pro- suppose, that several Christians, to avoid bably the attention of this excellent anti- the beat of the persecution which raged so quary had not been directed particularly to fiercely here in the reign of Dioclesian this subject. Vide Horda Angel Cynnan. Vol. (A, D. 302), did withdraw into solitary 1. p. 12.–Fabian (Chronicle, part iii. ch. 9.) places, and there accustoming theinselves to seems to have no doubt concerning the re- live, were oor first ascetics." Bingham, ality of Lucius's reign and conversion. Hey, however (Christ. Antiq. B. 7.), distinguishes lyn contends for Lucius, and gives his coat of between monks and ascetics, who have arms:-argent, a cross argent: in the dexter frequently been confounded together, and quarter, a cross sable. This, with the story dates the first introduction of ibe former, related by Cuuden, of the inscription dug from the Decian persecution, about the up in Cumberland, seems to bear strong middle of the third century, when mang marks of monkish fabrication,

people fled for safely in the deserts and Joseph is said, in the legends of the mountains of Egypt.--Here St. Anthony cloister, to have made divers voyages; at one became the first anchoret; and from the time, in a ship without sails or oars, and at East were derived the earliest practices of anotber, upon the skirt of his own coat. The our British monks. Vide the rule of PachoJews, being offended with him for burging mius, in Fusdrooke's British Monachiisit, the body of our Lord, made an opening in vol. i. Some modifications and indulgences the wall of Jerusalem, and inclosed him in were, however, found necessary in the west.

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