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Appendix A The Study Group and Its Workshop Activities Biographical Sketches

ment to NASA Headquarters in 1970, he developed NASA plans for future teleoperator and robot technology. He organized international conferences on Remotely Manned Systems at Caltech in 1972 and at USC in 1975. In addition to publishing technical articles on systems theory, teleoperatory, and robotics, he is robotics editor of the Journal of Mechanisms and Machine Theory and has edited two books. Since 1973, he is also associated with the University of Southern California teaching operations research and planning as an adjunct professor of industrial and systems engineering.

Dr. Carl Sagan is Director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies, and David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences at Cornell University. His principal research activities are in the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres and surfaces, space-vehicle exploration of the planets, the origin of life on Earth and the search for life elsewhere. Dr. Sagan played a leading role in the Mariner, Viking and Voyager missions to the planets, for which he received the NASA Medals for Exceptional Scientific Achievement and for Distinguished Public Service, and the international astronautics prize, the Prix Galabert. He has served as Chairman of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, as Chairman of the Astronomy Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and as President of the Planetology Section of the American Geophysical Union. For twelve years he was Editor-inChief of ICARUS: International Journal of Solar Systems Studies, the leading professional magazine devoted to planetary research. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Presidential Commission on a National Agenda for the 1980's. In addition to 400 published scientific and popular articles, Dr. Sagan is author, co-author or editor of more than a dozen books including, Intelligent Life in the Universe (1966); The Cosmic Connection (1973); The Dragons of Eden (1977), for which he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize; Murmurs of Earth (1978); and, Broca's Brain (1979). In 1975, he received the Joseph Priestley Award "for distinguished contributions to the welfare of mankind.”

Dr. James S. Albus is project manager for sensors and computer control in the automation technology program of the National Engineering Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards. He has received the Department of Commerce Silver Award for his work in control theory and manipulator design and the Industrial Research IR-100 Award for his work in brain modeling and computer design. Before joining the Bureau of Standards he designed attitude measurement systems for NASA spacecraft and for a short period was program manager of the NASA artificial intelligence program.

Dr. Robert M. Balzer attended Carnegie Institute of Technology under a George Westinghouse scholarship and a National Science Foundation fellowship, where he received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering in 1964, 1965, and 1966 respectively. He joined the RAND Corporation in June 1966 where he was concerned with reducing the effort required to utilize computers for problem solving, especially in on-line environment. In April 1972, he left RAND to help form the USC/Information Sciences Institute. He is currently an associate professor of computer science and project leader of the Specification Acquisition From Experts (SAFE) project. This project is attempting to aid users to compose precise and correct program specifications from informal natural language descriptions by resolving the ambiguity present through context provided by the system's knowledge of programs, programming, and the application domain.

Dr. Raj Reddy is professor of computer science at CarnegieMellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Prior to joining the Carnegie-Mellon faculty in 1969, he was an assistant professor of computer science at Stanford University, and also was an applied science representative with the IBM World Trade Corporation. He received a Ph.D. degree in computer science from Stanford in 1966, having previously attended the University of Madras, India, and the University of New South Wales, Australia. His research interests in computer science are in the areas of artificial intelligence and man-machine communication. In particular, Dr. Reddy is working on speech input to computers, visual input to computers, graphics, and task-oriented computer architectures. He is on the editorial boards of Artificial Intelligence, Image Processing and Computer Graphics, Cognitive Science, and IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

Dr. Thomas 0. Binford, a research associate in the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University, is presently working in the area of computer visions and robotics. Dr. Binford was at the AI lab at MIT previously. The Ph.D. received by Dr. Binford is from the University of Wisconsin.

Dr. Ewald Heer is a technical manager in the Office of Technology and Space Program Development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) leading the technology development programs for autonomous systems and space mechanics. After receiving a Dr. Engr. Sc. degree, specializing in system engineering, he conducted and managed several research and advanced development projects at McDonnell Douglas Corporation, General Electric Space Science Laboratory, and JPL. On assign

Dr. R. C. Gonzalez is professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, where he is also director of the Image and Patter Analysis laboratory. He is an associate editor of the International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences and is a consultant to government and industry, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the Martin Marietta Corporation. Dr. Gonzalez is co-author of three books on pattern recognition and image processing. In 1978 he received a UTK Chancellor's Research Scholar Award for his work in these fields.

manager of Mission Design Section. Mr. Lee was responsible for top-level design of all U.S. lunar and interplanetary missions. Mr. Lee's current position is manager of Mission Operations and Engineering for Project Galileo, which will be an in-depth investigation of Jupiter and its moons during the middle of the 80s decade.

Dr. Peter E. Hart is the director of the Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International, which is doing research on experimental automation and is developing expert consultation systems. Other professional experience of Dr. Hart has been as a lecturer, computer science department, Stanford University and as a staff engineer at the Philco Western Development Laboratory. His academic background, BEE (1962) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, MS (1963), and PhD (1966) in electrical engineering, Stanford University. Dr. Hart is a coauthor of Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1973) and has published 16 articles in, for example, Proc. Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Commun. ACM, Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Trans. Sys. Sci & Cybernetics. Professional associations and honors of Dr. Hart are American Association for the Advancement of Science; Association for Computing Machinery; past chairman, Bay Area Chapter of IEEE Group on Systems Science and Cybernetics; Eta Kappa Nu; Sigma Xi; Tau Beta Pi; editorial board, Current Contents.

Dr. Elliott C. Levinthal is adjunct professor and director of the Instrumentation Research Laboratory Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine. Previously he was associate dean for research affairs, Stanford University School of Medicine. He received a PhD degree from Stanford and holds degrees from Columbia and MIT. He is a principal investigator on the Viking 1975 Lander Imaging Science team and deputy team leader. In 1977 he received the NASA Public Service Medal for “Exceptional Contribution to the Success of the Viking Project.” He has served for several years as a consultant to NASA and was co-investigator on the Mariner Mars 1971 photo interpretation team. Dr. Levinthal's research interests include medical electronics, exobiology, application of computers to image processing, and medical information systems. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Physical Society, IEEE, Sigma Xi, Optical Society of America, and the Biomedical Engineering Society.

Dr. John Hill is a staff member of the Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International, Menlo Park, California. His background includes work as a research engineer for Stanford Research Institute in teleoperator research and as charge de researchne for the Biomechanics Research Laboratory in France in prosthetics control. He received a BSEE (1961) and a MSEE (1963) degree from the University of Illinois, Urbana, and a PhD in electrical engineering (1967) from Stanford University. His research interests are design and control of robot devices for automatic assembly and advances in industrial automation. Dr. Hill is a member of the Robot Institute of America and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Dr. Jack Minker is a professor and chairman of computer science at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of Maryland, he served as acting office manager and technical director of the Auerbach Corporation's Washington office, and as manager of information systems technology at RCA. He received a PhD degree in mathematics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1959 and previously received an MS in mathematics from Brooklyn College. His research interests in computer science are in artificial intelligence, automatic theorem proving, and database systems. He is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery, SIAM, and IEEE. He is on the editorial boards of Information Systems and Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science.

Mr. B. Gentry Lee is the manager of mission operations and engineering for the Galileo project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Mr. Lee's education is as follows: BA, summa cum laude, University of Texas, January 1963, Phi Beta Kappa at age 19, undergraduate studies in languages, literature, mathematics; MS, mathematics, physics and aerospace, MIT, June 1964; Woodrow Wilson fellow at MIT, and Marshall fellow at University of Glasgow, Scotland, 1964-65. Professionally Mr. Lee has been as follows: Aerospace engineer, Martin Marietta Corporation, 1965-1975. Director of science analysis and mission planning for the Viking flight team in Pasadena, California. This executive position involved the operational management of all 200 scientists and mission planners associated with the first landing on the planet Mars. Earlier Viking management positions included mission operations manager and navigation manager. Aerospace manager, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1975-1978. His first JPL position was

Dr. Marvin Minsky occupies the chair of Donner professor of science at MIT. He was founder and director of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory until appointing Dr. Winston to the position. Dr. Minsky has played a central role in the scientific design of many of today's research programs in robotics and artificial intelligence. He is author of books and papers on the subjects of artificial intelligence, theory of computational complexity, cognitive psychology, and physical optics. For outstanding contributions to computer science, he received the ACM's Turing Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Donald A. Norman is a professor of psychology at the University of California at San Diego where he is also director of the program in cognitive science in the Center for Human Information Processing. From 1974 to 1978, he was chair of the Department of Psychology. His research interests concentrate on understanding the psychological mechanisms of human cognition, with emphasis on problems in attention and memory. Dr. Norman received a BS degree from MIT and a MS degree from the University of Pennsylvania, both in electrical engineering. His doctorate, from the University of Pennsylvania, is in psychology. He has published in journals and books, and is the author or editor of four books. He is on the editorial boards of Cognitive Psychology, Journal of Cognitive Science, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

he was appointed manager of that section, which became the forerunner of the present information systems research section. He led the planning that culminated in the creation of JPL's robotics research program in 1972, and served as its technical leader until 1978. He was editor and a principal author of the section on information management in “A Forecast of Space Technology, 1980 – 2000,” prepared by JPL as a part of a broad “Outlook for Space” study conducted by NASA in 1974-75. Dr. Whitney has taken part in studies to set new directions for JPL and NASA research and development efforts.

Dr. Patrick H. Winston is an associate professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he is also director of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He is the editor of The Psychology of Computer Vision and the co-editor of Artificial Intelligence: An MIT Perspective, as well as author of the textbook Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Addison-Wesley; New York. His research focuses on the subject of making computers learn.

Dr. Charles J. Rieger received the BS degree in mathematics and computer science from Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, in 1970 and the PhD from Stanford University, Palo Alto, California in 1974. He is currently an associate professor in computer science at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. His research interests are in the area of artificial intelligence and cognitive modeling with particular emphasis on models of human inference in language understanding.

Dr. Thomas B. Sheridan is professor of engineering and applied psychology at MIT where his research is on manmachine control of aircraft, nuclear plants, and undersea teleoperators. He has served as visiting faculty member at the University of California at Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. He is co-author of Man-Machine Systems (MIT Press, 1974) and Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control (Plenum, 1976). Formerly president of the IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society and editor of IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems, he presently serves on the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Committee and the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment Task Force on Appropriate Technology. He is a fellow of the Human Factors Society and a recipient of the Society's Paul M. Fitts award.

Dr. Stephen Yerazunis is associate dean of engineering and professor of chemical engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. He received a doctorate in chemical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. His earlier research interests included vapor-liquid equilibria and heat and mass transfer phenomena at high mass transfer rates in turbulent flows. His current research involves appraisal of electrical energy alternatives for the State of New York and guidance of an autonomous rover for unmanned planetary exploration. His interest in the latter is directed towards the development of short-range hazard detection and avoidance systems, as well as the configuration of the rover. He has been a consultant to the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and the General Electric Company. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Dr. William M. Whitney is the section manager for information systems research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. He also has a part-time assignment in the Office of Technology and Space Program Development to plan activities that will strengthen JPL in the technologies underlying its information-system applications. He received a BS degree from Caltech in 1951 in physics, and a PhD from MIT in 1956 in experimental low-temperature physics. He served as instructor and as assistant professor in the MIT physics department from 1956 until August 1963, when he joined JPL to conduct research in the guidance and control section. In 1967,

Dr. William B. Gevarter is in charge of NASA's Space Guidance and Control, and artificial intelligence and robotics research programs. Previously he was with NASA Headquarters Office of Policy Analysis where he carried out research and analysis on the interaction of technology and society. He received a PhD degree in engineering from Stanford University, specializing in modern control theory. He has served as vice chairman of the American Society for Cybernetics and as chapter chairman of the Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society, Washington, D.C. He is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the World Future Society, the Society for General Systems Research, and the Association for Humanistic Psychology.

Stanley R. Sadin is program manager of Space Systems Studies and Planning at NASA Headquarters.

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