## Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and ComputationUnderstanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and cognitive development, and moreover, the causal learning mechanisms it has uncovered go dramatically beyond the traditional mechanisms of both nativist theories, such as modularity theories, and empiricist ones, such as association or connectionism. |

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Page 1

... jointly

... jointly

**independent**of the variables in S conditional on any set of values of the variables that are parents of R! Let me give you a brief sense of where I'm coming from, as we say in mellow Arcadia (though I'm a New Yorker myself). Page 4

Two discrete variables X and Y are unconditionally

Two discrete variables X and Y are unconditionally

**independent**in probability if and only if for every value x of X and y of Y the probability of x and y occurring together equals the unconditional probability of x multiplied by the ... Page 5

More formally, if Graph 1 is right, and there is a causal chain that goes from parties to wine to insomnia, then I⊥P | W; the probability of insomnia occurring is

More formally, if Graph 1 is right, and there is a causal chain that goes from parties to wine to insomnia, then I⊥P | W; the probability of insomnia occurring is

**independent**(in probability) of the probability of party going occurring ... Page 21

... for example, employing a randomizing device that is causally

... for example, employing a randomizing device that is causally

**independent**of A and B and then, depending on the output of this device, experimentally imposing (or “setting”) B to some particular value. Under any such intervention, ... Page 22

... variable set V is that there be a possible intervention on X that will change Y (or the probability distribution of Y) when all other variables in V besides X and Y are held fixed at some value by other

... variable set V is that there be a possible intervention on X that will change Y (or the probability distribution of Y) when all other variables in V besides X and Y are held fixed at some value by other

**independent**interventions.### What people are saying - Write a review

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### Other editions - View all

Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz Limited preview - 2007 |

Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz Limited preview - 2007 |

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