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place that was due to them from the Lord, with whom also they suffered.

For they loved not this present world, but Him who died and was raised again by God for

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Ignatius, the contemporary of Polycarp, recognises the same topic, briefly indeed, but positively and precisely. 66 For this cause (i. é. for having felt and handled Christ's body after his resurrection, and being convinced, as Ignatius expresses it, both by his Aesh and spirit), they (i. e. Peter, and those who were present with Peter at Christ's appearance) despised death, and were found to be above it t."

Would the reader know what a persecútion in these days was, I would refer him to a circular letter, written by the church of Smyrna soon after the death of Polycarp, who, it will be remembered, had lived with Saint John; and which letter is entitled a relation of that bishop's martyrdom. “ The sufferings (say they) of all the other martyrs vere blessed and generous, which they * Pol. ad Phil. c. is.

+ 19 Ep. Smyr, c. iii,

underwent according to the will of God. For so it becomes us, who are more religious than others, to ascribe the power and ordering of all things unto him. And in-, deed who can choose but admire the greatness of their minds, and that admirable patience and love of their Master, which then appeared in them, who, when they were so flayed with whipping, that the frame and structure of their bodies were, laid open to their very inward veins and arteries, nevertheless endured it? In like manner, those who were condemned to the beasts, and kept a long time in prison, un, derwent many cruel torments, being forced to lie upon sharp spikes laid under their bodies, and tormented with divers other sorts of punishments; that so, if it were possible, the tyrant, by the length of their sufferings, might have brought them to deny Christ *.

* Rel. Mor. Pol. c. ii.


There is satisfactory evidence that many, pro-,

fessing to be original witnesses of the Christian miracles, passed their lives in labours, dangers, and sufferings, voluntarily undergone in attestation of the accounts which they delivered, and solely in consequence of their belief of those accounts; and that they also submitted, from the same motives, to new rules of conduct.

On the history, of which the last chapter contains an abstract, there are a few observations which it may be proper to make, by way of applying its testimony to the particular propositions for which we contend.

I. Although our Scripture history leaves the general account of the apostles in an early part of the narrative, and proceeds with the separate account of one particular

apostle, yet the information which it delivers so far extends to the rest, as it shows the nature of the service. When we see one apostle suffering persecution in the discharge of his commission, we shall not believe, without evidence, that the same office could, at the same time, be attended with ease and safety to others. And this fair and reasonable inference is confirmed by the direct attestation of the letters, to which we have so often referred. The writer of these letters not only alludes, in numerous passages, to his own sufferings, but speaks of the rest of the apostles as enduring like sufferings with himself. “I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were, appointed to death ; for we are 'made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men ;-even unto this present hour, we both hunger and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling-place; and labour, working with our own hands: being reviled, we bless ; being persecuted, we suffer it; being defamed we entreat; we are made as the filth of the world, and as the offscouring of all things unto this day *. Add to which, that, in the short account that is given of the other apostles in the former part of the history, and within the short period which that account comprises, we find, first, two of them seized, imprisoned, brought before the Sanhedrim, and threatened with further punishment-f; then the whole number imprisoned and beaten : soon afterwards, one of their adherents stoned to death, and so hot a persecution raised against the sect, as to drive most of them out of the place; a short time only succeeding, before one of the twelve was beheaded, and another sentenced to the same fate; and all this passing in the single city of Jerusalem, and within ten years after the Founder's death, and the commencement of the institution.

II. We take no credit at present for the miraculous part of the narrative, nor do we insist upon the correctness of single passages of it.

If the whole story be not a novel, a romance; the whole ac

+ Acts, iv, 3, 21.

i Cor. iv. 9, et seq. # Acts, v. 18; 40.

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