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absorption acid aggregates allophane aluminium amounts analysis bands basal beam calculated carbon cations characteristic characterized charge chemical chlorite clay materials clay minerals complex components composition concentration consisting containing crystal crystalline curves depending described detailed determination diffraction patterns distilled water effect electron elements et al examination example exchange extraction factors Figure followed formula halloysite heating identification illite important increasing indicate intensity interlayer interstratified ions iron kaolinite layer material measured methods microscopy mixture montmorillonite nature observed obtained occur octahedral organic oriented oxides particles particularly peak possible preparation present procedure produce quantitative range reaction reference reflections relative removal sample saturating scanning shows silicate similar smectite soils solution spacing specimen spectra spectrum standard structure surface Table techniques temperature tetrahedral thermal thickness treatment trioctahedral usually various vermiculite WAVENUMBER X-ray diffraction yield