China’s achievements and failures are often viewed in a vacuum, where little thought is given to the interrelatedness of social issues from both state and society perspectives. Given the continued dominance of the Chinese state in so many aspects of society, the contributors of this collection present a nuanced view of Chinese state-society relationship to resituate our understanding of the social challenges facing China. Suffice to say, while the state is dominant, the role of social actors is critical to the future of China’s development. Thirty years of unrelenting economic development has created a range of social issues that China needs to contend with to ensure it does not hamper future growth. Nonetheless, factors such as urbanization, the marginalization of social groups, the emergence and influence of the business elites, and the potential for dissent of internet users, present interesting challenges and insights into the workings between state and society.